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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Hittites : The Warrior Peoples

    raided deep into the Old Babylonian Empire, captured Aleppo, and set the kingdom's southern boundary in Syria. This proved to be the extent of the Hittite conquest under Mursili, as they spent the next two centuries quelling internal disturbances and fighting the Mitanni of upper Mesopotamia. The kingdom returned CO some stability around 1500 BCE under the leadership of Telipinu, who laid down strict succession guidelines and possibly established a code of law. Some 50 years later, the New Hittite Kingdom was established. The Hittites had just suffered a defeat at the hands of the Egyptian pharaoh, Thutmosis and had begun paying the Egyptians trib-ute.

    • Word count: 961
  2. Essay Plan. To what extent was the Afghanistan war important for the end of the Cold War?

    Media and press started to transform, first shots of glasnost, war veterans (Afghansti) formed new civil organizations weakening the political hegemony of the communist party. 3. The war discredited the Red Army; it changed the perception of leaders about the efficiency of using the military to hold the empire together and to intervene in foreign countries. 4. Maintaining such a vast force in Afghanistan (over 85,000 soldiers) was crippling Russia?s already weak economy, it have non-Russian a common a cause to demand independence ?non Russian fighting a Russian war).

    • Word count: 732
  3. The developing roles of US First Ladies

    Aspiring spouses:Developing new roles(1901-1945): By the early twentieth century , First Ladies slowly acquired different duties , and the public had been the case twenty years before. The foundation of the modern first lady as an active presidential partner was firmly established during this period.Roosevelt , for example , held weekly meetings with wives of cabinet members . Helen Taft and Florence Harding were highly ambitious ; determined , liberated women who were the primary forces behind their husband?s career.Wilson functioned with an unprecedented amount of power on behalf of the president by conducting White House meetings and managing his business and communication:such a role would have been unthikable only few years before.

    • Word count: 677
  4. Ibn Battutah, the traveller

    At the Egyptian port of Aid-hab,he learned that no ships were sailing across the Red Sea to Jidda because of political turmoil in Arabia. He returned northward through Egypt and toured the lands of Syria and Mesopotamia, visiting Damascus and Hebron, where he saw the cave of Machpelah, the burial place of Abraham and Sarah and a site sacred to both Islam and Judaism. After traveling southward from Damascus and across northern Arabia, Ibn Battutah finally reached Mecca. He then sailed to the Persian Gulf and ascended the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to Baghdad.

    • Word count: 908
  5. Discuss the Space Race from the USA Perspective.

    Kennedy and a documentary, A century of flight: The space race by Creation films. Part B- Summary of Evidence 604 /600 Technological achievements made by the U.S.S.R. Space program, specifically in the early years of the proclaimed space race, worried the United States. 1. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik 1. The world's first artificial satellite was 58 cm in diameter, weighed only 83.6 kg, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path.[1] 2. American president Lyndon B. Johnson went on to describe the ?shock in realizing that it might be possible for another nation to achieve technological superiority over this great country of ours? in a response to the launch of Sputnik.[2] [3] 3.

    • Word count: 2127
  6. The Election of 1860- Abraham Lincoln

    Douglas, the candidate of the Northern Democrats, was opposed by John C. Breckenridge as a candidate of the Southerners.[4] The "Constitutional Union" (late "American") party nominated John Bell, of Tennessee, while the Republicans offered as their candidate Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, whose record on the question at issue was embraced in a sentence of a recent speech: "I believe this government cannot permanently endure half slave and half free."[5] The issue between freedom and slavery was for the first time clearly defined in a political contest. Pro-slavery and anti-slavery were pitted against each other in the most momentous election-contest the country had ever known.

    • Word count: 628
  7. Notes on the Causes of the American Civil War

    Congress may impeach and remove the President from office. The president (The Executive) 1. Elected every 4 years 2. If the President resigns or dies, his VP takes over. 3. The President can call special session of Congress, can recommend legislation and may veto bills. 4. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. A people of plenty (developing nation) 1. 1800-1850 2. Gross National product increased seven fold 3. Per capita income doubled 4. Population grew rapidly as a result of high birth rate and high immigration from Europe 5. By 1890 population reached 31 million with over half under 20 6.

    • Word count: 2146
  8. Essay plan-Origins of the Cold War. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the relationship between wartime allies deteriorate between 1945 and 1949?

    D-day (second front) occurred only until 1943, when Stalin requested it in 1941 (Russia had lost almost 5 million people). 3. American armed intervention in Russia during the Russian Civil War in 1917 made Russian rage Americans. 4. Interpretations: Alexander Nekrich questions Stalin?s leadership, thus blames on him the late creation of the second front. Paragraph 2: Wartime conferences at Yalta and Potsdam contributed to deteriorate diplomatic relations between the Big Three. 1. During Potsdam, 1945, the agreements and relations built in Yalta were badly affected by the fact Roosevelt died and was replaced by Trueman, and Churchill lost elections and was replaced by Attlee.

    • Word count: 570
  9. Essay plan Mao and Hitler. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single party states.

    2. Mao: The Eight Rules of Discipline - approach to the peasants. Cult of Mao ? peasants, who represented 95% of the Chinese population, worshiped Maoism (1937 CCP 100,000 had members, 1945 CCP had 1.2 million members). 3. Interpretation: David Welch ? propaganda is always key in the rise to power of any single state, especially that which involves the cult of a leader, where such leader is presented as mystical. Paragraph 2: Mao possessed political knowledge, experience and leadership, while Hitler had no proper understanding of the political, thus was very opportunistic and lucky.

    • Word count: 526
  10. "The Worst Human Right Abuses occur in LEDCs". To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    certain extent because while a significant part of the worst human right abuses happen in LEDCs, one of the worst human right violations witnessed by the world happened in an MEDC. In order to support my thesis, I will analyze three of the worst human right violations that have happened in the world, which are the Rwandan genocide, Holocaust and the Congo Massacre by the Belgians during the African colonisation. The article number 31 of the UDHR refers to what I believe is the most fundamental right and its violation is considered one of the worst, if not the worst human rights abuse, which is taking away another person?s life ? homicide.

    • Word count: 1523
  11. To what extent was the Potsdam Conference responsible for the creation of East and West Germany?

    Byrnes, US secretary of State, formed the basis of the Potsdam agreements on unilateral administration1 in Germany.2 II. Byrnes states regarding his plan is "…it will not be possible to administer Germany as a single economic whole with a common program of exports and imports…"3 III. Soviets agreed to Byrnesâ proposal, after Truman recognized the Oder-Neisse line as the new eastern border of Germany, sent 15% of surplus capital to the east in exchange for food and other raw materials, and transferred a further 10% of surplus without charge.4 Byrnes Plan„s “Sphere of influence orientation” (Potsdam agreements) i.

    • Word count: 2844
  12. How did the Black Death of 1348 impact on the rivalry for political power and social and cultural dominance between the Irish and English in Ireland?

    The bubonic variation was originally spread by fleas, which domesticated themselves on black rats, before being transmittable between humans . This theory however is currently under debate by contemporary historians. Bubonic plague involves swellings known as buboes ranging from the size of an egg to an apple which appear in the groin, neck and armpit regions . Other symptoms include fever, headaches, nausea and vomiting and black and purple spots varying in size and number following the buboes, which make an appearance all over the body .

    • Word count: 3976
  13. How important was Ideology to Maos China?

    There were several actions taken by Mao and the CCP that can be considered to be following the theoretical ideology. In 1950 to 1953, Mao joined the Korean War, to help North Korea invade South Korea and this action was to consolidate and form another Communist country. Another example is when in 1952 to 1956, Mao issued the 1st Five Year plan that consisted in urbanization, Mao wanted China to become, in 5 years, as urbanized as countries in the west, such as England for example.

    • Word count: 676
  14. The role of the aristocracy varied throughout Europe and changed over the course of the Renaissance.

    By the 1000s and 1100s, many cultures had developed a military definition. According to this view, a nobleman was a man who fought. This idea presented the aristocracy as one of three main segments of society, along with the clergy (those who prayed) and the commoners (those who worked). All three definitions of aristocracy relied on the notion that some people were better than others. In other ways, however, the three definitions were quite different. The political and military visions allowed individuals to rise from one class to a higher one, while the hereditary view fixed a person?s social class at birth.

    • Word count: 1108
  15. Compare and contrast the Celts of Europe and the Zhou of China.

    However they did make houses out of wood and straw. The Celts and Zhou were both influenced by their environment. Zhou China was isolated by the Himalayas, Pamir, the Tian mountains, and the Takla Makan and the Gobi Desert, as well as the Mongolian Steppes. Celtic Europe is also separated from Mediterranean Europe because of the alps. This isolationist mentality greatly impacted both of the civilizations. It made both of them develop an independent culture that was not based on other cultures. Both of the societies used rivers to their advantage.

    • Word count: 1020
  16. Chechen Nationalism and Global Implications

    The motives can be similar, and so can the product, however the methods and the means are generally very different. The identifiable people group is the Chechen people. These people live in the northern Caucasus Mountains of the southern part of Russia. They have resided in this region for the past 300 years (Infoplease). The region is about 7,720 square miles and is about the size of New York (Infoplease) The Chechens are primarily Islamic with a strong religious background.

    • Word count: 3523
  17. For this investigation I will be researching and analysing art in the 19th century, specifically, Realism and Romanticism

    The Romantic Movement reflected the industrial changes, of imagination and individuality. It showed life as what the artist pictured it rather than of what it actually was. The movement was also known for valuing emotion and instinct above reason. The Romantic Movement was inspired and began in the cultures that many composers came from. For example, Ludwig van Beethoven, who grew up in Germany, one of the big contributing countries to the romantic era, was one sources of inspiration. In Beethoven?s pieces many different romantic themes were portrayed, including love for nature (?Pastoral Symphony), liberty and freedom (?Fidelio?), and power and passion of emotions.

    • Word count: 1024
  18. How significant was the role of B-17 Flying Fortress in defeating the German war machine from 1944 to 1945?

    B: Summary of Evidence: The B-17 Flying Fortress Developed by Boeing1 , the B-17 Flying Fortress was the American army?s main strategic and heavy bomber created to counter the German military force2. The European Air War in 1944-1945 With the ever increasing strength of Luftwaffe3 during the winter of 1943, the United States has created a new command center, specifically made for strategic bombing in the European theater4. With the combination of American Air Force under the command of General Carl A.

    • Word count: 1990
  19. Why has Afghanistan become such an important issue in the last 10 years?

    As well as this it was the Soviet Unions first step on the way to take over the Persian Gulf Oil Fields. Even though this event happened over 10 years ago it is still a ?talked about issue? and its impact has severely contributed to how unstable Afghanistan has become. In Afghanistan a group called the Taliban had controlled most of the country since 1996. They are followers of Islam but are much more extreme than most Muslims. Their main reason for fighting was because they wanted to get their leaders back in charge of Afghanistan and turn it into what they believed to be ?the world?s purest Islamic Country?.

    • Word count: 1972
  20. Analyse the causes and consequences of Glasnost and Perestroika up until 2000

    Economic Stagnation was a main reason for adopting Perestroika. In the mid 1980s there was a heavy subsidization of essential goods. For example basic food, but its scarcity meant that even this wasn?t very successful. Oil, gas and coal production were below estimates in 1985. Attempts of improving the so well demanded consumer goods were ineffective. USSR heavily relied on imports from US and India. This meant that it wasn?t self sufficient in providing food for its people. Many people hungered, as food didn?t reach them; a fact exacerbated by the poor storage and transportation facilities.

    • Word count: 1485
  21. Which of indoctrination and repression proved most effective for consolidating Hitler's power (1933-1939)?

    to 1939, repression or indoctrination?? This question is worthy of study as it is always referred to when talking about Hitler time in power. The case of Hitler consolidating his power before going to war, is very interesting as he used both indoctrination and repression to consolidate his power thus by looking at this period of time this question could be answered. My thesis is that Hitler successfully used both of them but more successfully used indoctrination. Indoctrination: An important element in the Nazis will to spread their values and ideas was the propaganda run by Joseph Goebbels.

    • Word count: 4422
  22. History Internal Assessment - Stalin's propaganda during the war

    Speeches about the successes of his domestic policies as the Five Year Plans were printed in Pravda[2] (Russian political newspaper associated with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.) and even on posters around the streets. Yet the workers who actually built huge factories and electric power plants could see with their own eyes that the Soviet Union was industrializing, and, as a consequence, catching up with other capitalist powers. Workers and non-workers were told that the conditions in the capitalist countries were alarming, and that this was the era of the great depression.

    • Word count: 968
  23. Explain the USAs policy of containment. How successful was this in Korea, Vietnam and Cuba?

    However the revisionist view claims that it was not just one invasion from the North but continuous border clashes which gave USA the excuse to use force against North Korea through the UN at a time when the USSR would be unable to veto such a decision. As well as the USA fourteen other countries sent troops into Korea, therefore it could be argued that the policy of containment was not only followed through by USA but other UN troops.

    • Word count: 2933
  24. Evaluate the factors that enabled Mussolini to rise to power.

    In some regions returning soldiers were greeted by the red flag and due to these circumstances soldiers felt betrayed by those who were not fighting in the war. In addition, the promised welfare for families and treatment of the wounded was financially not affordable for the Italian government. The loss of 650,000 young men meant the loss of the most productive part of society additionally to those 250,000 who were permanently disabled or the 585,000 people who died of famine or disease after or during the war.

    • Word count: 2112
  25. Peron's Consolidation of Power

    In addition, references to Peron’s rise to power or fall from power will be limited. Hence, between the years of 1946 – 1955, Juan Peron was successful in personalizing both the political and social sectors in Argentina through the reorganization of the government and the education system. Part B: Summary of Evidence Argument 1: Juan Peron efficaciously ‘Peronized’ the political institutions and effortlessly removed the rise of any opposition that expressed anti-Peronist beliefs. Primarily, “after his electoral victory, Perón welded the [General Confederation of Labour (CGT), the Labour Party and a few independent groups] together under a single authority—despite the misgivings of some of the members of the Labour Party—to form, on 17 June 1946,

    • Word count: 2828

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