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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Raul Wallenberg; this is the story about his life. Who was he and what did he do?

    At that time, the bank played a major role in Sweden?s development from being an industrial country. Raoul?s grandfather, Gustav Wallenberg took care about Raoul?s education. The plan was to get Raoul to keep the family tradition, e.g. to be a banker. But he was more interested in architecture and in trade. Raoul graduated with top grades in Russian and art. After he finished his military duty 1931, he traveled over sea to start study architecture on University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

    • Word count: 2042
  2. Analysis of sources on the Gang of Four in China.

    Both sources D and E mention the security of China 3. Source E is specified with dates, while source D is not 4. In source D, the fact that the Gang of Four caused great damage to the Chinese economy was stated, however, in source E the results of their sabotage was emphasized on, as the number of those who were persecuted and killed was stated. 5. In source E, I was stated that Deng Xiaoping had gained the upper hand as the campaign unfolded; however, in source D opponents of the Gang of Four were not shown to have the upper hand at all.

    • Word count: 980
  3. Lecture Notes - the Founding Fathers and early US history.

    Congress created 1st executive department: sate, treasury and war. Department leaders became known as president?s cabinet 3. Secretary of state: Thomas Jeffereson 4. Secretayr of TreasuryL Alexander Hamiliton 5. Secretary of War: Henry Knox 6. The first congress 1. Only 10 states had joined government presided over by VP adams 2. Sent propsed amendments to states (bill of rights) 3. Judiciary Acr of 1789 organized judicial branch, 6-person supreme court with one chief justice and 5 associates 4. John Jay ? first chief justice 1. Development of Political parties during early national period 1.

    • Word count: 1473
  4. US History. Shay's Rebellion and NW Ordinance

    This led to the first major armed rebellion in the post-Revolutionary United States. Americans resisted high taxes and unresponsive government which was far away, but this time, Massachusetts settlers who were angry with a republican government in Boston, rather than with the British government. Farmers in western Massachusetts organized their resistance in ways similar to the American Revolutionary struggle.

    • Word count: 400
  5. Assess the conditions and methods that led to Hitlers rise to power.

    Hate = strongest human emotion ? create mass movement Loss of WW1 Treaty of Versailles Economic Crisis 1929 Dawes plan Negotiations between Germany + America. Instead of 2 billion, 50 million 200 million loan from US Investment in Germany/ Germany dependent on America. Ties Germany to America, if America collapses, Germany goes harder. 1932 6.1 mill unemployed Treaty of Versailles: Reparation payments Lost land Lost resources Little demand for selective services + goods Widespread poverty Gives Hitler open wound in population to heal.

    • Word count: 503
  6. Main Reasons for the Unification of Germany

    As a result of the Zollverein, unification was encouraged, as the states within the German Confederation could now trade with each other easily, and their trading interactions helped lead to a common sense of nationalism. The Zollverin also reduced protectionist barriers among the German states (excluding Austria). This improved transportation of raw materials and goods. Materials moved easier across borders, which was less costly.

    • Word count: 514
  7. 20th Century History Revision Notes

    First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August-11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens] of World War 1 War at Sea: German Plan was to destroy any ships bringing supplies to Britain. British navy would blockade German fleets, most Canadians fought in their own naval service. War in the Air: Shoot down enemy Plains ? ?dog fights?. They were used to observe enemy movement and shoot enemy troops on the ground.

    • Word count: 4343
  8. NOTES ON LIGHTNING WAR TO PHONEY WAR TO THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN SEPTEMBER 1939 TO NOVEMBER 1940

    a) as Hitler?s armies attacked Poland in the east, British and French forces remained on the defensive in the West. The German Fuhrer in this was already had one enormous advantage over the German Kaiser in the last b) The gain for the Russians was a front line further to the west. The Russians now tried to bully another neighbor, Finland, into parting with territories.

    • Word count: 468
  9. To what extent was the Serbian government guilty of war crimes during the Balkan Wars?

    Up until the beginning of the second world war in 1939 this newly formed nation held together peacefully even though there was such a wide range of different religions and nationalities. However in 1941, when the axis powers invaded, and Italy and Germany occupied land the different ethnicities in Yugoslavia started a brutal civil war against each other. By 1991, Slobodan Milosevic, a Serbian Politician, gained power by encouraging Serbian nationalism in Yugoslavia, and by doing so gained 4 out of 8 presidential votes giving him a very large influence and power.

    • Word count: 466
  10. The Result of the French and Indian War

    In order to get their share of profit, the British Parliament decided to abolish salutary neglect. Although this angered colonists, they decided to still continue their trade with the other countries by smuggling their goods to the ships. The British also added the Proclamation of 1763 after the completion of the war. The purpose for this proclamation was to create a barrier between the Americans and the Native Americans after Pontiac's Rebellion. This rebellion was lead by the Ottawa leader, Pontiac, for whom the rebellion was named after.

    • Word count: 1386
  11. Analyse the role played and the responsibility in the outbreak of war in 1914 by any two nations (with exception to Germany)

    It should be after careful consideration of (at the very least) intentions and actions that one may conclude on individual portions of responsibility- but even so, analysing only two countries and only a handful of roles and factors can hardly account sufficiently for where the blame would truly lie. Austria- Hungary is widely considered as a major player before (and in) the war and was also considered one of the Great Powers, despite having no overseas empire and a relatively unremarkable economy. It was also a multi- ethnic state, fragmented into thirteen different ethnic groups, and containing 3% Serbs.

    • Word count: 1808
  12. In the early years of slavery before 1830, many things shaped African and African American identity like religion, acculturation, and social stratification

    Frederick Douglass was famous for becoming a leader in the abolitionist movement, which was advocated for the end of slavery. This famous leader was possibly Muslim, which proves that their was a religious division among even the Africans of higher power. Another example to prove the religious division of the African American identity was with the Senegambian people, who were mainly Muslim. Quoted from the book Exchanging Our Country Marks, it states that ? Senegambians and Sierra Leonians, greatly in demand for their agricultural skills, tended to come from areas in which there was a Muslim presence?(Gomez 1998, 69).

    • Word count: 1993
  13. Abraham Lincoln's Early Life

    All the time he went to school did not add up to a year. Lincoln received most of his education from the books he read. As he grew up, he became fascinated with books. He loved to read every minute of his spare time. When he went out to plow a field, he put a book under his shirt and read at the end of rows when the horses were resting. He was willing to walk miles to get a book that he might read over and over. He read everything he could get his hands on.

    • Word count: 557
  14. Was Hitler a Strong or Weak dictator?

    Through the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forced to accept all responsibility for WW1 through article 231 and required to pay full reparations to France and Belgium per article 232, these stipulations brought great shame and financial stress to the people. The new government, The Weimar republic, also set up by the Treaty of Versailles was destined to fail seeing as no party could gain a majority of the votes and as a result of that President Hindenburg used article 48 to pass the laws that he deemed necessary which took the voice of the public away which lead to the Germans resenting their republic.

    • Word count: 722
  15. Expansion of Slavery and its Role in the US Civil War

    This in turn angered the South, as they perceived this ?strategy?, as violation of their Constitutional rights. It is important though, that at the time the primary focus was not to abolish slavery, but it to limit the influence it had (to indirectly kill it). Also, the South felt particularly threatened, as slavery was the lynchpin to their economy compared to the northern manufacturing economy independent of slaves. Furthermore, the South being conservative tried to continue the tradition of slavery just as their ?founding fathers? did. Therefore, defending these sectional differences justified a reason for the South to go to war, as restricting slavery would threaten their way of life.

    • Word count: 1157
  16. The Chinese Civil War - Background and Main Events

    From 1945-49, the CCP and GMD fought a bitter Civil War for control of China. In 1949, Mao and the CCP defeated the GMD and so China became Communist with Mao as leader. The Chinese civil war China was an Imperial Dynasty from 2200BC until 1911, when the system was overthrown in the 1911 Revolution. Han Dynasty 206 BC ? 220 AD Ming Dynasty 1398 ? 1644 Qing (Manchu) Dynasty 1644 ? 1911 The Manchu Emperors came from Manchuria, a large north-eastern state, which was originally outside of China. Therefore, in a sense, the Manchu Dynasty was one of foreign rule.

    • Word count: 3158
  17. WWI. The Effect of Total War on Britain

    The weapons are far more used and new ones are developed. The enemy targets the civilians and the infrastructures as well as the soldiers at the front, in the quest for "total victory" over the enemy's political, social and military structures.? (see source 7). In short, it is a war that affects the political, economical, social and technological sides of a country. The country I have chosen to write about is Britain. Britain had a very important role in the First World War, as they were a member of the Triple Entente as well as being one of the most powerful countries at the time.

    • Word count: 1446
  18. How much did the post war aims of the victors agree or disagree with Woodrow Wilson's 14 points?

    They wanted everyone to be able to have the ability to choose which nationality they wanted to belong to. However if did not feel that this rule could apply to the people of the losing nations, and so wanted to give areas with German populations to other nations. They felt that Germany should be punished and the US discussed the terms of the Treaty of Versaille but did not want to weaken Germany severely and felt that the Treaty was too harsh on Germany Great Britian wanted Germany to stay stronger so it could protect against Bolshevism which would go against point 6).

    • Word count: 662
  19. Mussolini's Consolidation of Power

    In 1923 Mussolini created the Acerbo Law, this law consisted on putting an end to the proportional system and it also said that any party with 25% of the votes and the highest number of seats in parliament would automatically get two-thirds of the seats in parliament. In 1924, elections were held in Italy. Mussolini won the elections, so two thirds of the seats in parliament were given to him and to his Party. This is the majority they needed to gain more control.

    • Word count: 666
  20. Explain why Britain joined the EEC in 1973 and why the process caused so much political controversy?

    Her foreign policy balanced between maintaining the Empire, working to establish a lasting peace in Europe and maintaining and developing the ?Special Relationship? with the United States. When the six powers who would form the EEC in 1957 established the European Coal and Steel Community (1951), as a means to "make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible." (1).. Cautious of making definitive alliances that may hurt it?s imperial interests and relationship with America, as well as concerned about the effects on its own steel and coal industries, which the post war Labour government had nationalised, Britain declined to join When the discussions began to transform the ECSC into a supranational common market organization (the ECC)

    • Word count: 1938
  21. The Impact of Ronald Reagan's Economic Policies in the US

    This IA will cover what Ronald Reagan?s most significant and successful economics policies were/are and how they had/have a tremendous impact on the nation?s economy by spurring economic recovery & growth. The social impacts brought upon the nation as a result of President Reagan?s economic plan will also be discussed. This IA will not cover any of the political impacts of Ronald Reagan?s policies had on the nation. Any international impacts Ronald Reagan?s economic plan have/had will also not be addressed.

    • Word count: 2343
  22. Cold War Timeline (in English and Spanish)

    Julio1: Operation Crossroads with Test Able. La primera demostración pública del arsenal atómico de Amércia. Julio 25: America's Test Baker – explosiones debajo del agua 1947 Contensión Marzo 12 : Doctrina Truman – Truman declara un rol activo en la Guerra Civil Griega Junio: Se anuncia el Plan Marshall para ayudar a diversos países a combater la pobreza, enfermedades y malnutrición. Septiembre 2 – Pacto Rio – EU visita 19 países de Latinoamérica y creó una zona de seguridad alrededor del hemisferio.

    • Word count: 984
  23. Assess the importance of Balkan Nationalism as a reason for the outbreak of the First World War

    This definitely changed the balance of power and diplomatic relationships of Europe and created tension between the Powers that all wanted to control the Balkans. However, there had been unrest already since the end of the 19th century, with the nationalistic feelings that had been developed in the Balkans because much of the Balkans were under Ottoman rule throughout the early modern period. Which is an origin of Balkan Nationalism. But they did not wish to be ruled by any authority other than themselves and longed for the liberation of their lands.

    • Word count: 1506
  24. To what extent did the Treaty of Versailles reflect the original aims of the peacemakers?

    Also, independent states were created in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, for example Poland, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Lithuania and Yugoslavia, and plebiscites determining the nation to which areas such as North Schlewig were given. These were all in line with Wilson?s ideals for self-determination. Lastly, the League of Nations was established with the signing of the Treaty and became responsible for ex-enemy states and the prevention of war. Therefore, the original aims of the US, embodied in President Wilson?s Fourteen Points, were most principally reflected in the Treaty of Versailles in the areas of self-determination and the creation of independent states.

    • Word count: 1470
  25. Crisis and Collapse in Spain between 1793 and 1808

    Spain by now little more than a French satellite, found itself in renewed conflict with England beginning in the late 1804. Victory over combined Spanish and French fleets at Trafalgar in 1805 gave Britain uncontested dominance over the seas. Spain?s repeated involvement in the war between 1793 and 1808 proved extremely costly in terms of both direct financial expenditures and the loss of trade and regular remittance of bullion from the colonies. An important consequence was that earlier policies to integrate Spain and the colonies economically gave way to short-term fiscal considerations.

    • Word count: 4123

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