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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. History Essay (Bismarck's Influence on the German Unification

    The origin of the Zollverein can be traced back to 1818, with the enforcement of the Prussian Tariff Reform Law[1]. The law abolished all customs duties within Prussia and replaced them with a tariff to be charged at the Prussian frontier. However, the accomplishment of extended free trade within Prussia and then within other states of the German Confederation marks the true creation of the Zollverein, an economic union, which to a great extent stimulated Prussian trade, as it produced a wider market for home-produced goods at cheaper prices.

    • Word count: 3742
  2. Russian History - The February Revolution

    The duma informed the tsar that only a major compromise on the government?s part offered any hope of preserving the imperial power. Nicholas then ordered the duma to dissolve. It did so formally as an assembly, but a group of 12 members disobeyed the order and remained in session as ?Provisional Committee?. Immediately followed by the request from a leading SR member Alexander Kerensky, to the tsar, to stand down as head of state or be deposed. The Petrograd Soviet was formed on the same day as the Provisional Committee, on 27 February; the moving force of the Soviet was the Menshiviks, who under their local leader Alexander Shlyapnikov, had grown in strength in Petrograd during the war.

    • Word count: 843
  3. The Life of an Influential Christian - C.S. Lewis

    By doing what he loved, Lewis forever changed the lives of countless people, becoming the most influential Christian. Born November 29, 1898 in Belfast, Ireland, Clive Staples Lewis lived an ordinary life. He attended school and Church regularly and was raised by two loving parents until 1908. ?All settled happiness, that was tranquil and reliable, disappeared from my life? (bbc.co.uk). During this year Lewis? mother passed away and family dynamics took a turn for the worst. While Lewis and his brother, Warren, grew closer, they both grew away from their Father. From September 1908- June 1910 both Lewis and his brothers attended Wynyard Boarding School which Lewis described as a dreadful place.

    • Word count: 2238
  4. Causes of the Spanish Civil War

    Lastly, the social condition, one in which the church and the army expressed great influence over the people, hindering change and presenting difficulties for the new republic. These three issues which can be categorized in both the long-term and the short-term were quintessential for causing the onset of the Spanish Civil War. Before major political polarization had begun, Spain?s government had already been experiencing governmental, economic and societal weaknesses. Since 1871, Spain had been a constitutional monarchy lead under a King, his appointed Prime Minister and the Cortes (parliament).

    • Word count: 1298
  5. Comparing German and British War Cemeteries of the First World War

    Two of the men buried in this mass grave were British soldiers whose bodies were found among the Germans. Elements of the cemetery such as ?Kameraden Grab?, seem to show more equality amongst soldiers. For instance unlike the CWGC headstones, the still uniform grey granite grave markers in Langemark do not refer to regiments; instead there are divisional memorials at the sides of the cemetery surrounding the graves, giving an impression of a united German army, even in death. German cemeteries tend to be very somber and peaceful, with dark-coloured headstones, usually flat on the ground rather than standing up. Tall oak trees (traditionally symbolising strength)

    • Word count: 598
  6. What was the most significant turning point of World War II? Operation Barbarossa

    History learning site. Web. 1 Sept. 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm>. Courses Offical attack start date - German equipment Source: Trueman, Chris. UK History. History learning site. Web. 1 Sept. 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm>. 3 Army Groups Source: Trueman, Chris. UK History. History learning site. Web. 1 Sept. 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm>. Amount of Russian equipment and Army Source: Trueman, Chris. UK History. History learning site. Web. 1 Sept. 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm>. Quoation of Hilter 2 Source: Trueman, Chris. UK History. History learning site. Web. 1 Sept. 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm>. Consequences Consequences after Operation Barbarossa Source: Streich, Micheal. ?Operation Barbarossa June 1941.? Military History (June 2010): n. pag.

    • Word count: 1477
  7. What was responsible for the start of the Cold War?

    Traditional historians state that the movement was an example of paranoia of Stalin towards the world. Salami tactics was a way the Soviet Union influenced and dominated Eastern Europe through divide and conquer process. Take the case of Poland. Stalin had used threats such as murder, censorship and intimidation before holding the ?free elections? as was promised at Yalta. These methods were a mean of eliminating the opposition party to secure a complete control of the landscape. The schemes of the elections were perceived as a breach of the Yalta Agreements.

    • Word count: 1247
  8. Lasting from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries, the outbreak of the Black Death devastated Europe

    Fear can be seen in Heinrich von Staden?s document explaining how after the doctors visited them, the houses of the sick were directly nailed up (Doc#5). Also, Erasmus of Rotterdam the theologian sees fear, when he blamed the dirt of the street for causing the Plague (Doc#2). Another example of fear of the Plague was visibly seen in Motto of Giovan Filippo?s document clarifying the things that were done to stop the diseases such as the building of quarantines, the enforcing of regulations and the burning of infected things using bonfires (Doc#6). There was also fear in Samuel Pepys?s document.

    • Word count: 1229
  9. Why did World War I last so long?

    At the outbreak of World War I the Germans immediately put their plan into action but they failed to carry it out effectively. To begin with, the Belgians refused to let the German forces pass through their country and put up greater resistance than the Germans had predicted, managing to significantly delay them. Belgian resistance also gave Britain the time she needed to organize her Expeditionary Forces, which were sent to protect the neutrality of Belgium and help the French.

    • Word count: 1270
  10. How did the conditions in Russia lead to two revolutions in Russia in 1917?

    Nicholas II, the Tsar of Russia from 1894 to 1917, had to face many problems which plagued his country during his time in power. These difficulties were economic, political, social and military, and usually were related to each other. In the economic field, there was a huge gap between the rich and the poor, increased by the rapid industrialization of a still undeveloped Russia, which led to a newly created working class that lacked of rights and protections in the workplace.

    • Word count: 1582
  11. Major Events and Individuals in the Subjugation of the American Indians

    He became a spiritual leader and medicine chief in the tribe. He mocked Indians who were willing to move onto reservations. George Armstrong Custer- George Armstrong Custer was a General who was in charge of about 600 members of the U.S Army 7th Calvary. Battle of the Little Big Horn- This is a battle fought on the morning of June 25, 1876. General George Armstrong Custer ordered his men to immediately attack an Indian camp site on Little Bighorn River which housed about 2,500 Indians prepared to fight. General George Armstrong Custer only had about 600 who were tired from ridding though out the night to get to the camp site.

    • Word count: 1125
  12. The cultural and scientific achievements of the Ottoman Empire

    Taqi al-Din was truly a polymath in every sense of the word and his titles are as followed; astronomer, astrologer, engineer, physician, botanist, zoologist, mathematician, watch maker, theologian and inventor. He wrote over ninety books on the different areas but sadly only 24 of the works have survived today. As an inventor one of Taqi al-Dins greatest achievements was the invention of the early practical steam turbine engine and his book on this subject that later lead to the discovery of more powerful steam engines in the 17th century.

    • Word count: 895
  13. What is History?

    This quote suggested that history is the witness of events in the past and everything we in our daily lives are related to history. I believe this quote shows the true essence of history and reminds me to learn from history in order to understand my country and the world as a whole. History illustrates how the world has changed from stone ages to the present modern civilization with advanced technology.

    • Word count: 482
  14. The Great Revolt (Indian Mutiny) of 1857 came as a surprise to the British, but not to the Indians and it altered forever the relationship between the two. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    There was increasing discrimination in the army as the English started to acclaim a more superior status. Though the British complied with the demands of the people in the beginning by providing them with facilities, which didn?t force inter-caste activity, these were soon seen as impractical. The soldiers were made to go and fight overseas which went against their caste system. The Hindu?s believed that if they travelled across the seas their caste would be lost. An uprising in 1824 when the 47th regiment refused to go to Burma led many to their death. Moreover, when the soldiers did come back, they were turned into outcasts in the society.

    • Word count: 1898
  15. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of Alexander IIs reforms.

    The land redistribution was unequal, and sometimes peasants had less land to work than before, for example the 1.5 million serfs that received no land at all. By 1881 over 60% of peasants had less than the minimum amount of land needed to sustain life. The landlords were displeased with the loss of control over peasants. This lead to a rise in population in Russia with an increasing pressure on land, and productivity was slowing down greatly in comparison to the rest of Europe.

    • Word count: 1402
  16. Brief History Of The Water Clock

    Ancient Egyptian water clocks were found in the tomb of Amenhotep I around the time of 1500 BC. The clocks have also said to been spotted in India and china as early as 4000 BC but some author?s do not agree with that. The oldest clocks to have ever been recovered were during the reign of Amenhotep III around 1417-1379 BC and they were used in the Temple of Amen-Re at Karnak. However the oldest water clock documentation were the tomb inscription of the 16th century BC and Amenemhet the Egyptian court official identify him as the inventor.

    • Word count: 653
  17. He brought his country and his people nothing but harm. To what extent do you agree with this assessment of Stalins domestic policies in the USSR between 1929 and 1953?

    He also hoped to improve standards of living. The industrialisation of the Soviet Union must be regarded as the most formidable of his achievements as it allowed the USSR to be in position to fight and win the Second World War. It was during this period that the research was done that allowed Russia to emerge as one of the world?s leading industrial powers. There is no doubt that the growth of heavy industry in the 1930s was impressive and it was Stalin who drove the pace relentlessly when others wanted to slow down industrialisation.

    • Word count: 1526
  18. Opposition in Nazi Germany

    However Kershaw goes on to describe that ?ordinary Germans would seldom engage in behavior that can be appropriately termed ?resistance??, the definition of which is aforementioned. This is mirrored in a SOPADE (the German, socialist, SPD party in exile) report from 1935 which states that ?discontent has increased again and is more extensive than last year?s grumbling? however ?people say ?things can?t get worse after Hitler?, but behind these phrases there is neither the will to overturn the system nor any conception of what should take its place?.

    • Word count: 1375
  19. Australian Government Policy and the Aboriginal People.

    The European settlement had a severe and devastating impact on the Indigenous people. Exposure to new disease brought over by the British, dispossession of their land and violent conflicts with the settlers resulted in the death of a vast majority of Indigenous Australians. However, the small percentage that survived the early decades of the colony did not go unaffected. The impact the white settlers had on the Indigenous changed their lives, and the lives of future generations. The British colonisation policies and subsequent land laws were framed in the belief that the colony was being acquired by settlement of Terra Nullius.

    • Word count: 902
  20. Khrushchevs foreign policy was only a continuation of what had gone before. Explain

    Khrushchev continued in what Stalin started in foreign affairs. He continued to keep the coexistence, while travelling to other countries like India, Britain or U.S.A , but did a bit more. After WWII, Germany was divided between the Allies and Russia. Russia had the Eastern Germany under control. It was a problem, as United Stated controlled the West Berlin. They had different policies, economy and culture as they were capitalists. Lot of people, mainly workers ran away from East Berlin to West side, because of the communism.

    • Word count: 1036
  21. The Great Depression in the USA.

    Great Depression had huge impacts on ewconomy , social life and politics in the USA . US economy , as it is stressed was the most affected sphere of life, and it caused a lot of problems in others spheres . Anyway , the years that preceded the crisis seemed as a prosperous time for the US economy . Enormous profit made in industry was not equaly shared between workers . The most obvious example was that in a period 1923-1929 industrial profit was increased by 72 %. For workers , average wage was increased for 8 %. Ordinary citizens in general , due to this example were not in ability to sustain the prosperity .

    • Word count: 2090
  22. Analyse the impact of Puritan beliefs on the social and political structure of Massachusetts.

    This resulted in a colony where church and state were not much segregated, and the Puritans organised their government not only according to the teachings they found in the Bible, but also on the basis of their own experiences while persecuted in England. The Massachusetts Puritans believed that ;the eyes of all people are [were] upon us [them]?. The Puritans did not only want to shape the Church of England to their ideal, but also society. This influenced the social structure of Massachusetts in a profound way.

    • Word count: 881
  23. The Effects of the Great Depression on Canada.

    Men as young as 16, left home to work in camps to reduce the burden on their family. Some of those camps were located in remote areas, such as northern Ontario and B.C.?s interior. They looked like slave camps, with their bunked in tarpaper shacks, to their six and a half days a week, for twenty cents a day. As for those who were older, this was not the case. Some started selling products door-to-door, some panhandled, and others approached churches and charities for help Population: The Depression changed families in dramatic ways. Many couples delayed marriage and the divorce rate dropped sharply.

    • Word count: 1948
  24. Assess critically three causes of the First World War

    As such, militarism was a contributing factor to the readiness of countries to enter the war. The prevalence of imperialism amongst powerful European states in the late 19th century and early 20th century almost certainly contributed to the outbreak of WWI. Whilst it cannot be cited as a direct cause as disputes/crises surrounding colonies were mostly settled before 1914 without war, imperialism cultivated a competitive attitude amongst powers and a fear of losing the world?s resources encouraged them to participate in war. With the arrival of the industrial revolution, there became a greater need to colonise in order to gain resources and power, and Britain, Germany and France were now looking towards Asia and Africa as a source of colonies.

    • Word count: 780
  25. How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933?

    It was affective and modern, with general slogans. ?They were never very clear about what this meant in terms of policies. This made it hard to criticize them. When they were criticized for a specific policy, they were quite likely to drop it.?[2] In their propaganda, they talked about general topics that everyone wanted for their country such as uniting the people behind one leader, going back to traditional values. It is also very important to emphasize that their propaganda was smartly aimed at areas that the German population was resentful towards.

    • Word count: 1282

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