US History Review Sheet -Black Power, Eisenhower's foreign policy and the Battle of Gettysburg

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  1. Assess the aims and impacts of the black panthers between 1966 and the 1970s

- Build up to the idea of Black Power:

  • In 1965, a white Norther man, named  Reverend James Reeb, was shot and killed in Alabama.
  • James Reeb was a Northern civil rights activist who was killed by a white segregationist
  • The murder was being lamented all over the country (by white people mainly), and was even being talked about in newspapers and broadcasting
  • News of the attack provoked a national outcry -- Most blacks were angry that the white death was getting a large amount of attention -- Stokely Carmichael said “movement was playing into the hands of racism” --death caused a problem in the movement because white death was getting more publicity than the movement itself was.
  • The idea of black power started to form (Stokely Carmichael founded the idea)
  • Basics of Black Power:
  • White people can’t truly understand or relate to the black experience. Whites can have sympathy towards the movement, but never empathy.
  • Full expression of opinions and ideas can only happen without whites. Free from oppression.
  • Whites are paternalistic. They think that they know what is best for black people. Whites are praising themselves, thinking that they are doing their part in the movement just by supporting it.
  • Cooperation with white people lowers the self-esteem of black people because it makes it seem as though they need a white person involved in order to achieve success. Cooperation with white people fosters dependency.
  • Believed that it was the time for economic and political independence
  • Financial freedom and freedom of thought
  • White people oppress people of color all over the world (black panthers relating their oppression to countries overseas-- oppression not only in America) -- American racism is the same as colonialism all over the world.
  • White people have their own problems that they need to solve (no need to work together because they had different problems to deal with)
  • 1966 the black panther movement was started by Bobby Seale and Huery Newton.
  • The party composed a list of goals, not only for the sake of the movement, but for the benefit of the African American population as a whole, once and for all. (However this list of goals is still in effect)
  • This list was called the 10 point plan :
  • 1. Want freedom. Power to determine the destiny of black and oppressed communities.
  • 2. Full employment for African American people.
  • 3. Want to end to the “robbery by the capitalists of the black and oppressed communities”.
  • 4. Want decent housing, fit for the “shelter of human beings”.
  • 5. Decent education. Want education that teaches students the “true history” and African Americans’ role in present-day society.
  • 6. Want completely free health care.
  • 7. Want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people.
  • 8. Want an immediate end to all wars of aggression.
  • 9. Want freedom for all black and oppressed people held in US Federal, state, county, city and military prisons and jails.
  • 10. Want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace.
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Disintegration of the Civil Rights Movement: 

  • Post 1965 nonviolence became less popular
  • separatism is a popular belief amongst African Americans
  • Alliances between different civil rights group are split -- NAACP doesn’t want to ally with SNCC and the Black Panthers
  • The Black Panthers made MLK seem “not radical enough”
  • The black & white alliance is pretty much over by the end of the movement with the uprising of the black panthers.

19. In what ways did the foreign policy of the United States change during the Eisenhower administration?


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