3. The discovery of Vanantius’ body in the vat of pig’s blood contains two allusional references. One being a biblical allusion in the Old Testament concerning the symbolism of pig’s blood. In Deuteronomy 14:4 it speaks of the consumption and touch of the meat and blood of a pig as being unclean. A comment towards the blood is made when Vanantius’ body was being removed from the scene saying, “The abbot ordered the corpse to be extracted from the ghastly liquid” (104). Referring to the blood as a “ghastly liquid” supports the biblical allusion. The second allusion is one referring to a previous phrase made by William concerning the “hoof prints in the snow” (26) made by Brunellus. William reiterates this phrase slightly differently but still pertaining into the same concept saying, “another man’s body leaves deep tracks in the snow” (106). Both symbolize the snow being a slate where William can deduct the events that occurred.
4. There are three debates between William and Jorge concerning the legality of laughter. These debates show the development of each character. William expresses that laughter is a way of life and believes “laughter is a good medicine like baths, to treat humors and the other afflictions of the body”, (131) but Jorge disagrees and believes that laughter brings evil upon oneself. He replies to William saying, “Laughter shakes the body, distorts the features of the face, makes man similar to the monkey” (131). Jorge expresses he ignorance and is again disproved as William responded to that comment saying, “Monkeys do not laugh” (131). He shows humor in his response to Jorge which enraged him and kept the debate going deeper and deeper. Jorge’s support to his argument is that “Christ did not laugh” (132) because there is no scripture in the bible stating that he did and that “laughter is something very close to death and to the corruption of the body” (96). Both make compelling arguments but William never showed doubt in what he was saying unlike Jorge who insulted William in Latin saying, “Tum podex carmen exulit horridulum” (130) which meant “Then this asshole let out a vulgar sound.” William realized that the old man was set in his ways and was not only blinded physically but blinded mentally and he decided to humble himself saying, “Perhaps what you say is correct, and I was mistaken (134).
5. There is an apparent allusion found between William and Adso’s attempt to solve the problem of gaining entrance to the Finis Africae, Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Gold Bug”, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s “Adventures of the Dancing Men”. The reference being that all three are mysteries that needed code deciphering. William expresses, “Bacon was right in saying that the conquest of learning is achieved through the knowledge of languages" and "The best treatises on cryptography are the work of infidel scholars" (Eco 165). One can see that in “Adventures of the Dancing Men”, Holmes makes a similar statement saying, “I am fairly familiar with all forms of secret writing and am myself the author of a trifling monograph on the subject…" (Doyle 720). Both are describing how they fortunately have the knowledge of code deciphering. In “The Gold Bug”, Poe utilizes a superior example as Mr. Legrand appeared to be frenetic as he assembled an intricate system of unfamiliar codes via the use of the “gold bug”.
6. Historical Novel:
A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. As such, the historical novel is distinguished from the alternate-history genre.
Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. Detective fiction is the most popular form of both mystery fiction and hardboiled crime fiction.
Gothic romance, type of novel that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th cent. in England. Gothic romances were mysteries, often involving the supernatural and heavily tinged with horror, and they were usually set against dark backgrounds of medieval ruins and haunted castles.
postmodernism, term used to designate a multitude of trends—in the arts, philosophy, religion, technology, and many other areas—that come after and deviate from the many 20th-cent. movements that constituted modernism. apocalypse (upok'ulips) [key][Gr.,=uncovering], genre represented in early Jewish and in Christian literature in which the secrets of the heavenly world or of the world to come are revealed by angelic mediation within a narrative framework. The genre seems to have arisen in Palestine in the 3d cent. B.C., perhaps as a protest against an oppressive and dominant establishment, either Gentile or apostate Jewish. The writing is characterized by otherworldly journeys, visions, animal imagery derived from the common fund of ancient Middle Eastern mythological imagery, and number symbolism.
a book or set of books containing articles on various topics, usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or, less commonly, all aspects of one subject.
The novel “The Name of the Rose” portrays all 5 genres previously defined. It can be considered a historical novel since many events and people that were depicted in the novel exists in real life. For example, William used to be an inquisitor which in fact at that time frame the inquisition had just occurred. There is no doubt that the novel renders the genre of a detective story. From beginning to end it is all one big mind boggling mystery which William is the great sleuth who solves the mystery alongside with his apprentice Adso. One sees William’s deductive reasoning in the opening pages when he explains his conclusions to Brunellus’ appearance saying, “ the beauty of a horse requires that the head be small, siccum prope pelle ossibus adhaerente, short and pointed ears, big eyes, flaring nostrils, erect neck, thick mane and tail, round and solid hoofs” (24). As a gothic romance, the setting of the story depicts such a genre. It might not be necessarily a haunted castle or a medieval ruin but it was an abbey that was considered to have evil spirits that affected the minds of monks. During the first encounter between Abbot Abo and William, “he looked around, imperceptivebly, as if the enemy were lurking within those walls” (29). Between the incessant shouts and discussions of the Anti-Christ coming soon, it is no wonder why the story expresses a postmodern apocalypse genre and possesses the aversion to proofs by means of science. An example is seen when William explains to “Adso, solving a mystery is not the same as deducting from first principles. Nor does it amount to simply collecting a number of particular data from which to infer a general law” (304). The novel can be described as an encyclopedia as well since it lists the important facts and information of the real events that occurred. Umberto Eco managed to formulate a novel where more than one genre was marvelously presented and can be easily identified.
7. Umberto Eco utilizes Salvatore’s wild accounts and Adso’s dream to express his purpose for writing “The Name of the Rose”. “Penitenzaiagite! Watch out for the draco who cometh in futurum to your anima! Death is super nos! Pray the Santo Pater come to liberar nos a male and all our sin!” (46). This translates to, “Repent! Watch out for the dragon who cometh in future to gnaw your soul! Death is upon us! Pray the Holy Father come to free us from evil and all our sin!” (Key 103-104). Salvatore’s frenetic language symbolizes Eco’s purpose of conveying that life is sometimes not easy to understand or put together but may sometimes take some time to stop and think before making a move. Adso dreams of fantasies that seem nonsensical thought through these confusing dreams the author’s purpose was once again portrayed. “And in the fog of the soul, finding myself as if in a region not of this world, I had a vision, or dream, if you prefer to call it that” (427). William manages to take what was once a confusing dream into an important factor to solving the mystery. This proves that sometimes what may seem irrelevant and confusing at first may actually be apart of something more than just nonsensical ideas.