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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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1.  ## Experiment to calculate the diameter of a piece of nichrome wire from its electrical resistance by varying the length of the wire

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2 Conclusion and Evaluation States a conclusion, with justification, based on a reasonable interpretation of the data. States a conclusion based on a reasonable interpretation of the data. States no conclusion or the conclusion is based on an unreasonable interpretation of the data. 2 Aspect 1 - Concluding Aspect 2 - Evaluating Procedure(s) Evaluates weaknesses and limitations. Identifies some weaknesses and limitations, but the evaluation is weak or missing. Identifies irrelevant weaknesses and limitations. 1 Aspect 3 - Improving the Investigation Suggests realistic improvements in respect of identified weaknesses and limitations. Suggests only superficial improvements. Suggests unrealistic improvements.

• Word count: 1766
2.  ## Investigating the factors related to the crater formed by a falling object.

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As a result, the force of impact of the ball on the surface will increase because all the potential energy will be changed into kinetic energy (velocity) of the ball just before its impact on the sand. This increase in the force of impact will move more sand sideways and downwards resulting in the formation of a bigger bowl shaped crater, hence the increase in diameter. Variables * The independent variable is the drop height of the ball. * The dependent variable is the diameter of the crater formed by the impact of the ball on the sand.

• Word count: 673
3. ## The purpose of this experiment is to determine the refractive index of Perspex plastic. All of these variables are related through Snells Law.

The refractive index of air is 1. Using Snell's Law, the refractive index of Perspex plastic will be determined by rearranging the equation to obtain: The refractive index for Perspex plastic is known to be 1.49 (A. L. Hyde Company, 2007). Raw Data: Below is a raw data table of refraction for a Perspex plastic prism when varying the angle of incident The uncertainty of the protractor is estimated to be half of the smallest division, which is �0.5o. However, there are 2 sides to the protractor.

• Word count: 1329
4. ## Hydrogen fuel vehicles

Both processes have their advantages and disadvantages. For example, using natural gas to produce hydrogen is less expensive than electrolyze water, but if the point of running cars on hydrogen is to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels then this method is not good, since natural gas is a non-renewable source. On the other hand, electrolyzing water is a slower process that might be more expensive but it is not using any fossil fuels, other than to produce the initial electricity, therefore the whole process involving the production and use of the car is cleaner than using natural gas as a resource.

• Word count: 1852
5. ## Question: Does the length of the string holding the pendulum in mid-air affect the frequency?

Figure 1: Graph Sketch Variables: Independent Variable: Length of the String (cm) Dependent Variable: Frequency of the Pendulum (in Hz) Controlled Variables: Number of Cycles (15), Mass of the weight (g), Room Temperature (~ 23�C) Materials: * Retort Stand * String (in the following lengths: 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm) * Weight (200g) * C-Clamp * Timer (�0.5s) * Ruler (�0.05cm) Figure 2: Setup of Lab Procedure: 1. Setup the materials as shown in figure 2. 2. Note: Make sure to tie one end of the string with the Pendulum Clamp and create a loop on the other end of the string for the pendulum to hang off of.

• Word count: 896
6. ## Period of a loaded Cantilever (D, DCP, CE)

Set up apparatus as shown in the graph. Make sure that the meter stick is attached stably to the stand and the meter stick measuring the amplitude is attached vertically on the ground for higher accuracy of measurement. 2. Lay a mass of 50g at the end of the meter stick and stable it with plastic tapes. 3. Pull the end of the meter stick downwards with one finger with amplitude of 8 cm, measured by a meter stick. The oscillation of the cantilever should start with the same maximum displacement for all trials throughout the experiment.

• Word count: 1569
7. ## Boyle's law report (DCP, CE)

the random uncertainty of pressure of gas when volume of gas is 10 =(220-216)/2=2 Uncertainty with measuring volume with syringe is taken to the smallest division of the measuring scale, which is �1ml. Data processing Volume The S.I.unit for volume of gas is dm3. To transform volume of gas from ml to dm3 I have to divide the values by 1000. Eg. 10cm3 �=0.010 dm3. Processed Data Volume of the gas/ dm3 � 0.001dm3 Average pressure of the gas / kPa Random uncertainty of Pressure � kPa 0.010 218 2.0 0.015 172 2.0 0.020 129 1.0 0.025 102 1.0

• Word count: 793
8. ## centripetal force lab (DCP, CE)

4.58 0.14 250 3.82 4.01 4.41 4.68 4.22 4.23 0.17 300 3.62 3.77 4.06 3.93 4.28 3.93 0.13 Mean 0.15 The random uncertainty of the average time taken for 10 rotations is calculated by Eg. Random uncertainty for time taken for 10 rotation period when the hanging mass is 50.0 kg = (7.79-7.01)/5=0.16 Data processing Mass The I.S. unit for mass is kg. I had to transform the measurement of the hanging mass from g to kg. For example, 50g to 0.050 kg Time In the data collection, time to complete 10 rotation periods is taken instead of 1 rotation because 1 rotation period is too short to be measured with a stopwatch accurately.

• Word count: 1440
9. ## Aim: To investigate the factors that affect the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum.

A simple pendulum can be approximated by a small weight which has a small radius and a large mass when compared relatively to the length and mass of the light string from which it is suspended. Objects that exhibit this type of motion follow sinusoidal paths and experience oscillations between their maximum values of position. The period of a pendulum is the time for one complete swing. The period of pendulum's equation: The units we used were to measure period of period of motion is m/s2 for g, and metres for length L, thus, the period units were seconds.

• Word count: 1262
10. ## Hooke's Law Experiment. Aim: To determine the spring constant.

3. At the end of the spring (where the hook is), a mass of 100 grams was placed and as a result the spring started to extend downwards. 4. Its extension after the weight was placed on the hook was measured using a ruler and compared to its initial face. 5. After five continuous trials with the same mass (100 g) a mass of 200 grams was placed on the hook. Five trials were performed for all 100,200,300,400 and 500 grams respectively, following the same procedure stated before.

• Word count: 739
11. ## Research Question: To determine the speed of a pulse in a thin metallic spring.

0.95 � 0.01s No 69 0.93 � 0.01s No 4 1.04 � 0.01s No 37 1.15 � 0.01s No 70 1.30 � 0.01s No 5 1.08 � 0.01s No 38 1.13 � 0.01s No 71 1.22 � 0.01s No 6 1.11 � 0.01s No 39 1.01 � 0.01s No 72 1.16 � 0.01s No 7 1.09 � 0.01s No 40 1.14 � 0.01s No 73 0.97 � 0.01s No 8 1.05 � 0.01s No 41 1.24 � 0.01s No 74 1.42 � 0.01s No 9 1.21 � 0.01s No 42 1.16 � 0.01s No 75 1.04 � 0.01s No 10

• Word count: 1131
12. ## Hookes Law- to determine the spring constant of a metal spring

is equal to (extension) since both have the same units (measured in meters). Therefore, we can state that * The area under the a Force-Extension () graph gives the work done on the spring and therefore, the Elastic Potential Energy (). Since it's the area of a triangle, then * From the graph, we know that , then . Therefore if we substitute this into the first formula () we get and that is equal to From this information we can extract that , the spring constant can be found as follows: 1.

• Word count: 1543
13. ## This lab will test the effects of the surface area factor on acceleration due to gravity.

- Responding Variable: Time of Descent The paper will be dropped with the help of a partner on top of the apparatus at a constant vertical displacement and position (the paper will be dropped horizontally against its surface area). The partner at the bottom of the apparatus will be timing the time of descent of the paper using an electronic stop watch measuring to the nearest 0.01s by reacting to the very first sound of the paper hitting the ground.

• Word count: 2397
14. ## Aim of the Laboratory Experiment: Understanding of propagation of light waves phenomena by using a photometer device.

A photometer is a device which consists of two surfaces which are illuminated by two different light sources. A photometer is illustrated in this picture: Both surfaces are at the same angle ? in respect to their light source. If the illumination on both surfaces is the same and the distance from the source is the same we can derive from the Law of Lambert that: I2 = I1 (r22 / r12). In order to perform an experiment with a photometer, both light sources are switched on and the distance of the second one is changed. When the source is placed at a location where the illumination of the two surfaces is equal, the distances r1 and r2

• Word count: 1805
15. ## Forces Lab. I decide to investigate the relationship between the propelling force exerted on the weighted margarine tub and the distance travelled by the tub.

in diagram 1 above, the margarine tub and the hanging weights are connected by a string, therefore they are in the same system. Theoretically, the total energy in the system is conserved, which means the loss in the gravitational potential energy when the weights drop (PE) is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the weighted margarine tub (KE) which propels the tub to move. After the tub is propelled, the only horizontal force exerted on it is the friction between the tub and the runway (f), and it is the friction that slows the tub down and finally stops it.

• Word count: 1732
16. ## Uncertainty in Atwoods machine lab. Measuring acceleration.

Variables * Independent: The mass in each side of the pulley (g) * Dependent: The acceleration of the motion (ms-2). The difference of mass on each side of the pulley * Control: The total mass in the system. Data M1(g) M2(g) Mt (g) Difference (g) a1(ms-2) a2(ms-2) a3(ms-2) a(ms-2) 250g 150g 400g 100g 2.39 2.20 2.38 2.32 300g 100g 400g 200g 4.78 4.80 4.84 4.8 350g 50g 400g 300g 6.92 7.04 6.86 6.94 Table Analysis When the mass of the system was unbalanced, I

• Word count: 587
17. ## The aim of this investigation was to find out the refractive index of light by shining light rays through a rectangular prism.

As for the controlled variables, these include the position of the light box, as well as that of the prism. Materials and Method Apparatus: - Light box kit - Rectangular prism - Paper - Ruler - Pencil - Protractor Observe the diagrams to the right. We first set up the light box so that it shone a single thin ray of light through a piece of black plastic with a slit. Then, we took the prism and placed it in the centre of the sheet of paper.

• Word count: 597
18. ## Does the acceleration of a D.C (dynamic car) depend on the ramps angle?

Causing the speed to increase and the time to decrease depending on the ramp's angle. Therefore if the ramp have a short angle elevation, then the acceleration would be shorter that in a ramp with a higher angle elevation. * Procedure: a) Once we had installed all the necessary equipment, we start with the fist data result. b) The compilation of data start with a ramp's angle form by one book. c) The D.C need to be located at 50cm.

• Word count: 460
19. ## Physics-investigate the relationship of temperature and the height of the bounce of a squash ball

Research Question: How does temperature of a squash ball affect the height of the bounce of a squash ball? Hypothesis: I hypothesize that as the number of bounces increases, so will the temperature, and as the temperature increases, the height of the bounce of the squash ball will increase. This is due to the direct proportionality of the temperature and pressure of gases, as in the rubber squash ball there is compressed air. Variables: Independent: Bounces of the Ball causing a change in temperature This will be varied by the use of a squash racket and bouncing the ball, and

• Word count: 1333
20. ## Investigating How The Index Of Refraction Is Affected By Different Temperatures Of Water

Controlled variables: The controlled variables in our lab are the following: 1. The same light source from the ray box for each replication. 2. The controlled amount of water that is poured in the Plexiglas. 3. Same converging lens for each replication 4. All of the replications will be at one of the following angles, 20�, 40�, and 60� Procedure Materials and Apparatus 1. Ray Box 2. Cold water( 4.5�C) 3. Hot water (63 �C) 4. Tap Water(36 �C) 5.

• Word count: 1220
21. ## Specific Heat Capacity Lab data and processing

?T= �0.1�C initial final change Aluminum block 62.3 16.2 Aluminum calorimeter 46.5 - - - Aluminum Calorimeter w/ water 156.5 19.7 16.2 -03.5 water 114.0 - - - Calculate Initial Temperature of Aluminum block: Q gained by block = Q lost by water + Q lost by Al calorimeter 0.0623(910)(16.2-T)=.114(4200)(03.5)+.0465(910)(03.5) 918.427-56.963(T) =1675.8 + 148.1025 T = -15.9�C Percentage difference: Calculated and Actual Specific Heat Capacity Metal Calculated SHC c / JKg-1�C-1 Actual SHC c / JKg-1�C-1 % difference Object 1 370.9 Iron- 450 17.6 Object 2 625.6 Aluminum- 910 31.3 Object 3 318.9 Copper- 385 17.2 Sample Calculations: Conclusion: The specific heat capacity of object one which was Iron was calculated to be 370.9 J/Kg/�C.

• Word count: 944
22. ## Hooke's Law Intro and data processing

?x = � 0.05 cm Length After Extension x (cm) ?x = � 0.05 cm Trial 1 Force F (N) ?F = � 0.001 N Trial 2 Force F (N) ?F = � 0.001 N Trial 3 Force F (N) ?F = � 0.001 N 3.85 3.85 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.85 4.85 0.490 0.458 0.491 3.85 5.85 0.717 0.697 0.713 3.85 6.85 0.987 0.986 0.995 3.85 7.85 1.210 1.259 1.300 3.85 8.85 1.600 1.564 1.533 3.85 9.85 1.769 1.842 1.822 Processed Data: Extension of the Spring and the Average Force Exerted Extension x (cm)

• Word count: 1203
23. ## The purpose of this lab is to examine impact craters. Impact craters occur when a high velocity object collides with a larger body

As a result, this increases the diameter by an additional diameter factor, and get And can be further clearly written as with mass and gravity being constants. This will be the main method that will be taken into account when evaluating the formation of the craters, since it yields a dependent and independent variable that leads to a research question. Research Question How is crater size affected by the energy provided? Independent Variable Height of the "meteor" Dependent Variable Resultant Crater Diameter Controls Mass of the meteor, surface of impact, gravity Hypothesis Applying the kinetic energy equation will show that the diameter will increase as the energy increases because the object can accelerate and gather more force for the collision.

• Word count: 1891
24. ## Precision Lab. Question: What is the density of 2 unknown liquids, and how precise are the measurements used to make the calculations?

Materials: * 2 unknown liquids: one blue and one green. * A liquid of known density: ethyl alcohol. * A 100 mL graduated cylinder * A balance * 2 250 mL beakers Method: 1. Put each unknown liquid into a beaker. 2. Bring the beakers to your workstation. 3. Put the empty graduated cylinder onto the balance, and tare it. 4. Pour 10 mL of one unknown liquid into the graduated cylinder. 5. Weigh the graduated cylinder. 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until 50 mL have been poured and weighed.

• Word count: 733
25. ## How does the mass of a spherical object and the height from which it is dropped into sand affect the width and depth of the crater formed?

Thus, where a is the radius of the cap and h is the depth. Put into terms of the diameter s, volume can be represented as . Plugging in this equation, the potential energy present in the crater is represented by. The kinetic energy comes from the dropping object. At impact this energy is equivalent to the object's initial potential energy, because it has all been converted into kinetic energy. This is P=mg, where m is mass and is the height of the drop. Thus, the relationship between the potential energy present in the crater and the kinetic energy of the dropping object can be represented by where Y is the energy of the ball and P is the energy of the crater.

• Word count: 1608
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"The boldness of asking deep questions may require unforeseen flexibility if we are to accept the answers."

-Brian Greene

If you want to learn about the physical laws that govern the behaviour of everything in the universe, then chances are you'd enjoy studying physics as part of your IB diploma. Physics is one of six subjects on offer in group 4, and gives students a grounding in the scientific method, lab work, and range of theoretical concepts. The theory portion begins with building blocks like mechanics, electric currents, and waves, and builds up to advanced topics like astrophysics and particle physics.

Physics will require a fair amount of writing, often in the form of lab reports. If you need to refine your writing skills, come visit our collection of student-submitted IB physics papers. Study the teacher-marked and peer-reviewed papers alongside your own work, and before long, you'll know how to edit and re-write assignments to your teachers' high standards.

Students who get good marks in physics, and especially in high level physics, will leave school well positioned to apply for a range of university course within the physical and biological sciences.

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