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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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1. ## Light Intensity Investigation

Due to this, increasing distance ultimately decreases the illuminance (how much light from a source hits a specific object) and thus, the light intensity. VARIABLES The independent variable (the variable being changed): The independent variable is going to be the distance between the light sensor and the light source (cm) with measurements varying from 10cm-100cm and increasing at 10cm increments. We will do this in order to see the effects varying distance has on light intensity. The variable will be altered by increasing the distance between the two objects by 10cm (interval length) for each set of trials. We will measure and change this gap by using a metre ruler to determine the exact distance and then we will place the light source at one end and the sensor at the determined mark on the ruler.

• Word count: 2990
2. ## IB Physics Design Lab - Does the temperature a bar magnet is exposed to affect the magnetic field strength of the bar magnet?

Hypothesis: It can be hypothesized that at higher temperatures, due to the disorientation of magnetic domains, the magnetic field strength of the bar magnet will decrease, whereas at lower temperatures, due to a more preferential orientation of magnetic domains, the magnetic field strength of the bar magnet will increase. In all, as the temperature increases, it can be hypothesized that the magnetic field strength will decrease. Independent Variable: Temperature the bar magnet is exposed to. This will be changed by placing the bar magnet in a water bath of the temperature required (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100°C), for a specific period of time.

• Word count: 1454
3. ## Investigation into the relationship between acceleration and the angle of free fall downhill

A brick was set under one of the wooden ramp?s ends, leaving the other end touching the ground. The length (adjacent side to the angle) was measured with a ruler and was then recorded, which would be 59.8 cm for all trials. 2. Another brick was set in front of the other end of the wooden ramp. At the same time, the height of the plane was recorded, noting that the ramp already had a height of 2 cm. This value was then subtracted from the total height, to obtain the original height, which was then recorded 3.

• Word count: 2566
4. ## Investigating maximum braking conditions in a bicycle

This is a limitation for braking as it would be very difficult to balance. The following formula can be used to determine the maximum force of friction present: Here, is the coefficient of static friction, is the normal force On assuming that initially bicycle is on a flat ground, we know that the normal force in perpendicular therefore the sum of the frictional forces acting on the bicycle is: 1. Deceleration at which the bike will tip over: This is the time when the rear wheel lifts off the ground.

• Word count: 735
5. ## Researching water turbine designs.

In case of an emergency stop of the turbine (e.g. in case of load rejection), the jet may be diverted by a deflector so that it does not impinge on the buckets and the runner cannot reach runaway speed. In this way the needle valve can be closed very slowly, so that overpressure surge in the pipeline is kept to an acceptable level (max 1.15 static pressure). As any kinetic energy leaving the runner is lost, the buckets are designed to keep exit velocities to a minimum. One or two jet Pelton turbines can have horizontal or vertical axis, as shown in figure 6.5.

• Word count: 2496
6. ## How does the sinkage depth of a tyre affect its rolling resistance ?

The low uncertainty in the data allowed a quantitative generalization of the rolling resistance due to the sinkage depth. Thus an effective conclusion could be reached for the rolling resistance force. We were also able to find the least value for the rolling resistance due to the air pressure in the tire. Word Count :- 281 Words Introduction One of the ways to increase the sustainability of fossil fuels is by increasing the efficiency of the work done by automobiles. An important proponent of output loss in automobiles is the rolling resistance that the pneumatic tire faces alongside other mechanisms such as aerodynamic loss, transmission, drive train.

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7. ## Plan to investigate the change in volume of air in a party balloon when the temperature of the surroundings is varied.

• Word count: 830
8. ## Experiment to compare the radiation of heat from different objects.

At 85 degrees Celsius start the stopwatch and take the temperature readings at equal intervals of time of 20 seconds until 180 seconds 6. Perform the experiment 5 times for each of the cylinders Apparatus needed 1. Clamp stand 2. Thermometer 3. Stopwatch 4. Boiling water 5. Black cylinder 6. Shining cylinder 7. Measuring cylinder Variables 1. Temperature of the water boiled from the kettle 2. Room temperature in which the experiment is performed 3. Distance at which the thermometer as kept in the water of the container 4.

• Word count: 1139
9. ## How does the period of the mass - spring system depend on the mass ?

push the spring up until it starts bending and then let it go and you can start counting anytime you want but quickly for 10 oscillations and record how long it takes to complete the cycle 4 times Data: Original length of spring 76.5cm ±0.3 Mass Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Length of Spring after stretching with weight 20g ± 1 3.73s ± 0.3 3.30s ± 0.3 3.69s ± 0.3 3.43s ± 0.3 75.0cm ±0.3 40g ±2 4.59s ± 0.3 4.59s ± 0.3 4.45s ± 0.3 4.66s ± 0.3 72.8 cm ±0.3 100g ±1 6.84s ±

• Word count: 619
10. ## Nuclear technology may be a useful substance that can produce great amounts of energy, but if used by the wrong hands, it may be a deadly weapon

But even though the technology may be deadly, it is essential for current science. 21st century North Korea, after making the truce at 1953 with South Korea, has been using most of its money on improving its military powers which includes nuclear technology. According to official North Korea media, about 15.8% of the state budget has been used every year for the military. North Korea is known to carry fissile material for up to 10 nuclear missiles that can be deployed on intermediate range locations.

• Word count: 688
11. ## Modelling the Solar System. In this lab we are going to investigate data concerning orbital motion around Saturn. We will work out the centripetal acceleration and the inverse squared of radius.

The period of motion is in days; therefore, we will have to multiply them by 24, and twice by 60. SATELLITE RADIUS (m) PERIOD (seconds) Pan 1.340 ï´ 108 4.147 ï´ 104 Atlas 1.380 ï´ 108 5.184 ï´ 104 Prometheus 1.390 ï´ 108 5.270 ï´ 104 Pandora 1.420 ï´ 108 5.443 ï´ 104 Epimetheus 1.510 ï´ 108 5.962 ï´ 104 Janus 1.510 ï´ 108 5.962 ï´ 104 Mimas 1.860 ï´ 108 8.122ï´ 104 Enceladus 2.380 ï´ 108 1.184 ï´ 105 Tethys 2.950 ï´ 108 1.633 ï´ 105 Telesto 2.950 ï´ 108 1.633 ï´ 105 Calypso 2.950 ï´ 108 1.633 ï´

• Word count: 546
12. ## Physics Lab: Images formed by a plane mirror

I then proceeded with 20° and 30° and the same process occurred: the angle of incidence always equalled the angle of reflection. As the mirror was perpendicular to the working surface, the normal to the mirror lies in the same plane as the surface. Hence, the incident and reflected rays lied on the working surface, perpendicular to the mirror surface. Finally, there were barely any errors in this lab procedure as the lab was approached with the same process each time.

• Word count: 1377
13. ## To find the value of acceleration due to gravity by recording number of oscillations of a simple pendulum

The number of oscillations = 10 Data Processing Uncertainty Calculation 1. The uncertainty of the ruler (± 0.05 cm) and half the uncertainty of the Vernier Caliper (± 0.05/2 = 0.025) 2. Half of the uncertainty for the Vernier Caliper has to be taken as we have the diameter of the steel bob, and need only its radius. 3. The example calculation for the length of string 0.2m is shown below: Example Calculation 1 Adding the uncertainties: Therefore, the final value is: 21.7 cm ± 0.525 cm Similarly, the calculations were performed for other readings 1.

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14. ## Energy Exploration Project

It is an advanced form of energy that has only been available for the past 50 years. It is very similar to fossil fuel in that it uses steam turbines to produce electricity. It uses uranium to produce heat in a process called nuclear fission where neutrons are smashed into the nucleus of atoms splitting them and releasing heat energy. Hydroelectric energy is a renewable source. It can come from fast moving water or a dam can be created to drop water and increase its speed.

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15. ## Car Safety Features: Newtons Laws in Airbags

Sensors in newer cars are more sophisticated and can measure the magnitude and direction of force more accurately. The car?s computer can calculate how much gas to generate in the airbag. Inertia is Newton?s first law. It describes that an object with no net force will not change motion, so a still object with a net force of zero will remain motionless and an object moving at a constant velocity will not accelerate. In the case of a car crash, that means that while the car is acted on by the force of impact, the person does not immediately feel

• Word count: 690
16. ## The purpose of this lab is to prove the discovery of George Ohm, that when the temperature of a metallic conductor is kept constant, the current through the conductor is proportional to the potential difference across it.

A series circuit is a circuit containing only one electron path or e-path for the electrons to move across. The total resistance in a series circuit can be calculated by adding the individual resistances of the resistors in the circuit together. A parallel circuit is a circuit containing more than one e-path. The resistance in a parallel circuit is determined by the sum of the reciprocals in the total resistance. For this experiment we will manipulate the equation V=IR so that it is solving for resistance. Resistance is then determined by dividing the voltage by the current. In making this change an alternative method for solving is created as the slope now represents the resistance in the system.

• Word count: 1476
17. ## IB Specific Heat Lab

A student’s overall success in this lab will be measured not by the calculated data being accurate but rather in the calculations showing an understanding of the manipulation of the formula Q=mcâT and its uncertainties. This lab will bring a real world application to this concept and give students hands on experience with specific heat. ASPECT 2: Controlling Variables: 1. Constant temperature (100° C) of the metals that we are using to find their specific heats. 2. Same scale and thermometer used for measurements 3.

• Word count: 2423
18. ## The Half-life of dice Decay investigation

8 46 8% 4 6 7 39 8% 3 7 10 29 7% 2 8 8 21 7% 1 9 4 17 6% 1 10 2 15 6% 1 11 2 13 5% 1 12 3 10 5% 1 13 0 10 4% 0 14 1 9 4% 0 15 2 7 3% 0 16 2 5 3% 0 17 2 3 2% 0 18 0 3 2% 0 19 2 1 1% 0 20 0 1 1% 0 Justification of errors The percentage error is larger at first (10%)

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19. ## Coefficient of friction lab report

Extension=final length ? initial length Extension(e) has a unit of cm. To find the spring constant k, we use the equation below. F=k.e The SI unit of the spring constant is Nm-1 First, we got a spring and a mass hanger at one end of it. And we used a ruler to measure the initial length of the spring. Then we put 100 g of mass on the mass hanger and measure the final length of the spring. We repeated the same procedure for 200 g to 900 g.

• Word count: 460
20. ## Testing the Resistivity of Pencil Lead.

The inverse of resistivity is called conductivity and can be expressed as: ? = 1 / ? (2) where ? = conductivity (1 / ? m)[1] Aim: Investigating the relation between the length of the pencil lead and its resistance Hypothesis: As the length of pencil lead increases, its resistance also increases. Variables: Independent Variable: Length of pencil lead (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 cm) Dependent Variable: Resistance of pencil lead Controlled Variables: Temperature of Medium Since it may cause expansion of the lead and change its radius, it can affect resistance and length of the conductor.

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21. ## In this experiment, a mechanism is prepared to observe the refraction of light and calculate refractive index of water

are: vacuum 1.00000 fused quartz 1.46 air (STP) 1.00029 crown glass 1.52 water (20ºC) 1.33 polystyrene 1.55 acetone 1.36 carbon disulfide 1.63 ethyl alcohol 1.36 flint glass (heavy) 1.65 sugar solution (30%) 1.38 sapphire 1.77 sugar solution (80%) 1.49 diamond 2.42 As it is shown in the table above refractive index of matters are constant. DATA COLLECTION & PROCESSING Trials θ (Air)(±1.0) θ (Water)(±1.0) 0 0.0 0.0 1 18.0 13.0 2 19.5 15.0 3 30.0 23.0 4 33.5 25.0 5 46.0 32.0 6 50.0 35.0 7 65.0 43.0 Table 1: Angles of the lights with y-axis in medium of air and medium of water for each trial Trials sinθ (Air)

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22. ## Goal: To visualize an electric potential interaction between two electrodes and to sketch the resulting configuration as it creates a 2-dimensional electric field that can be used to map 2-D, equipotential lines.

Using the probe, lightly slide it over the board ball end on the underside and connect one lead wire of the voltmeter to it. Then connect the other lead (the one besides the black one) to the banana jack numbered E1. As you guide the probe along, without applying pressure, when you find a null point where the voltmeter reads 0 volts, then mark it as it is a point with the same potential as E1. Continue to mark points until you have enough to trace an equipotential line, repeat this from jack E1 through E7.

• Word count: 773
23. ## Research Question To calculate the maximum height reached by an object fired vertically, and to compare with the experiment.

Measure the vertical height from the photo gates. 4. Find the mean initial velocity. 5. Calculate and compare height with the experiment. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING Data Collection Height reached (m) 1st (ms-1) 2nd (ms-1) 3rd (ms-1) 4th (ms-1) 5th (ms-1) 1st level 0.52m 3.09 ms-1 3.09 ms-1 3.05 ms-1 3.09 ms-1 3.09 ms-1 2nd level 1.20m 4.90 ms-1 4.81 ms-1 4.90 ms-1 4.81 ms-1 4.90 ms-1 3rd level 2.29m 6.58 ms-1 6.58 ms-1 6.76 ms-1 6.58 ms-1 6.58 ms-1 Processing LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 OBSERVED HEIGHT (m)

• Word count: 462
24. ## Acceleration Lab. We believe that by using a ramp and a marble that we will be able to prove that acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 m/s.

the ramp Controlled Variable: acceleration due to gravity Aspect 2 Height of the ramp The height of the ramp can be changed which will affect how long it takes for the marble to reach the end of the ramp. Time for the object to get to the end of the ramp We will use 3 different starting points for the marble and do three trials for each starting point. Acceleration due to gravity Acceleration to gravity should remain constant. Aspect 3 Materials 1. Ramp 2. Stop Watch 3. Painters Tape 4. Marble 5. Meter Stick 6. Blocks Diagram Method 1.

• Word count: 781
25. ## The purpose of this lab is to discover what the ideal conditions would be to dissolve an alkaseltzer tablet as fast as possible

DV: The dependent variable was the time. We collected how fast the tablet dissolved in minutes/seconds. Controlled Variables: Why variables are most likely to affect outcome of the experiment: How method allows for the control of these variables: Room temperature water: This allowed us to have a comparison to the warmer and colder water, which helps answer the hypothesis. We controlled this by pouring plain tap water into a beaker, and not adding an ice cube or placing it on the hot plate.

• Word count: 468