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International Baccalaureate: Physics

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  1. Aim: To prove the parallelogram law of vector addition

    * In the center between the two pulleys we place one hook with 6 weights two make a total of 0.7 N (including the weight of the hook). * On either side of the string we hang the two remaining hooks. * According to the choices made, weights are hanged on either of the hooks. * After the weights come to rest a white sheet of paper is secured into place on the wooden block with the help of a tack.

    • Word count: 703
  2. Testing ohms law on a light bulb and a resistor connected to a source of potential difference.

    Then these were connected to the voltmeter and amphometer in a way which the figure above shows. The voltmeter was set at 20 V and the amphometer was set at 200 m. then the light bulb or the resistor was connected to a potential difference. The measurements of the voltmeter and amphometer were recorded. Result of the experiment A. Light bulb. Voltage(V) Current(milli -amperes) Resistance(?) 0.43�3 13.5�3 31�3 1.29�3 23.5�3 54�3 2.13�3 30.9�3 68�3 3.05�3 37.7�3 80�3 4.25�3 45.3�3 93�3 5.61�3 52.8�3 106�3 6.55�3 60.3�3 108�3 8.09�3 67.8�3 119�3 9.92�3 75.8�3 130�3 11.51�3 82.3�3 139�3 13.09�3 88.4�3 148�3 14.16�3 92.2�3 153�3 15.88�3 97.6�3 162�3 Graph 1.1 voltage versus current graph for a light bulb.

    • Word count: 1004
  3. IB 33: Magnetic Fields

    The aim of the experiment is to find the relationship between distance and magnetic field strength. By the hypothesis, we use this model formula:. As from the graph shows, To find the order or from the model formula we log the equation. As so: Next, from that logged model formula we use linear regression to find the value of . Firstly, take the existing data and log the values in Microsoft Excel. New logged data: Distance (cm) Averaged Field Strength (gauss) 0.92941893 0.50159727 0.90308999 0.51295763 0.87506126 0.52107422 0.84509804 0.53679439 0.81291336 0.55222661 0.77815125 0.56568366 0.74036269 0.58256894 0.69897 0.5875737 0.65321251 0.58849348 0.60205999 0.58883553 0.54406804 0.60615536 0.47712125 0.68214361 0.39794001 0.68593146 0.30103 0.76501013 0.17609126 0.8842493 0 0.98765785 -0.30103 1.163308 -1

    • Word count: 893
  4. Investigate the relationship between temperature and evaporation rate.

    Use the thermometer to check the initial temperature of the 75ml liquid 3. Heat the liquid by using the hair-dryer. Dry the liquid for two minutes, then immediately measure the temperature by using the thermometer. Record data in table 4. Repeat step 3 for another 2 minutes for another 2 times 5. Repeat steps 1 - 4 for the other liquid 6. Repeat steps 1 - 5 two times (time constraint) Data Collection "Data shows the relationship between temperature and evaporation rate" The calculation: There is no calculation required in this experiment Test 1: Type of liquid Initial temperature of liquid (�C)

    • Word count: 1070
  5. If the ratio of the coils of the transformers increases, will there be a decrease in efficiency?

    Because the current is alternating current the poles will change direction the whole time. This will lead into the shaking of the whole transformer (change of magnetic energy into kinetic energy). This shaking is the energy 'lost' by the transformer. When the difference in coils will get bigger, the magnetic field formed by the coils and the core will get bigger. This means that the attraction between the poles will be bigger as well, resulting in more shaking thus a greater 'loss' of kinetic energy. Hence there will be a decrease in efficiency, as the ratio of the coils will increase.

    • Word count: 573
  6. Investigate the factors affecting the period of a double string pendulum

    I will be changing periodically the distance l between the two strings after each try increasing the length by 2 cm each time. Thus I will be able to analyze and comprehend the relationship between the two variables (the distance l and the frequency and period of the metal bar). This will be my independent variable over the course of my investigation However to find the frequency of the oscillations of the metal bar, I first need to identify the period (time taken for the bar to swing back and forth to the same point).

    • Word count: 3437
  7. Kepler's 3rd Law

    The third law states a mathematical relationship between the period of a planet and the radius of its axis. Mathematically it states that, where k is a constant for a specific solar system. Data Collection: Period and Distances of Planets in Solar Systems Period (Earth Years)

    • Word count: 559
  8. Physics Design - Leaky Bucket

    This force will push the water to a certain distance, which will be measured. Depth of hole in the bucket Independent The pressure of the water on the bucket is different at different depths, thus affecting the distance to which water is squirted. Punching several holes at different depths on the same bucket can vary the depth of water. Area of each hole Controlled Pressure is the ratio of force applied to the area on which it is applied. If the area of each hole is not equal, the distance to which the water is squirted will show anomalous variations as for a larger hole, the force with which it is pushed out will be less and vice versa.

    • Word count: 752
  9. Physics IA CE - Investigating the resistance of a wire

    The uncertainty for the thickness of the wire, was given by the instrument used to measure its diameter. To find the uncertainty for each measurement according to the thickness I will have to subtract the lowest result from the highest result to determine the uncertainty. For example 0.15-0.13 would yield an uncertainty of �0.02. I will also keep the uncertainties to two decimal places to ensure it is consistent with the results. To find the averages of each measurement (voltage/current)

    • Word count: 1121
  10. physics lab report. Aim To determine the coefficient of static friction (μs) between a wooden block and a granite plane

    = Weight (W2) fr = W2 (substitute fr = �s* N) (�s) (N) = (M2) (g) (substitute N=W1) (�s) (W1) = (M2) (g) (substitute W1=M1*g) (�s) (M1) (g) = (M2) (g) (divide by g) (�s) (M1) = (M2) (divide by M1) �s = M2 = slope of graph of M2 vs. M1 = ?y = y2-y1 = (2.825 - 0.825)*102 = 2.000 =0.396 M1 ?x x2-x1 (7.15 - 2.10)*102 5.05 2. Absolute error in coefficient of static friction (?�s) Absolute error in coefficient of static friction (?�s)

    • Word count: 725
  11. physics lab report

    Absolute error in time� Absolute error in time�( ?t�) = (absolute error in time (?t) + absolute error in time (?t)) * time�(t2) time(t) time(t) ?t� = ( ?t + ?t)*t� t ?t� = ( 2?t)*t� t ?t� = 2(0.0005) (0.0655) = 0.0003s 0.256 2. Acceleration of free fall d=h= ut + 1/2at� a=g = acceleration of free fall (constant) Variables: d=h=the distance between the upper photogate and the lower photogate u=initial velocity of the sphere (we assume it is equal to 0ms-1)

    • Word count: 842
  12. Physics IA - DCP CE - Resistance vs cross-section area

    I think it is reasonable to neglect them since the micrometer is fairly accurate and the numbers are pretty small. . As seen from the graph, the relationship between my independent and dependent quantities is linear and they are inversely proportional. This means that the thicker the wire is, the lower the resistance. In other words, the larger the cross-sectional area is of the constantan wire, the lower the electrical resistance gets across the circuit. Although the best-fit curve passes through the all the error bars, the error on the graph is fairly significant since there aren't enough points to identify any anomalous outliers to confirm this relationship.

    • Word count: 899
  13. Exploring Cosmology

    And a picture is worth a thousand words. It was a telescope like no other. The Hubble Telescope is not the only way to explore space; we can still investigate on the subject of space by giving off radio waves that can be detected with radio telescopes. We know many facts and theories on space but there is still a lot space to explore if we want to know the whole lot about space. As technology increases, we as human beings are learning more and more on space. We are discovering new planets and even new galaxies.

    • Word count: 1767
  14. Uncertainties in timing a tennis ball hitting the ground

    1.22 10 1.22 11 1.22 12 1.22 13 1.22 14 1.22 15 1.22 16 1.23 17 1.24 18 1.25 19 1.25 20 1.26 21 1.26 22 1.27 23 1.28 24 1.28 25 1.28 26 1.28 27 1.28 28 1.28 29 1.28 30 1.29 31 1.31 32 1.34 33 1.34 34 1.34 35 1.34 36 1.37 37 1.4 38 1.41 39 1.43 40 1.44 41 1.47 42 1.65 (all the data is rounded to the 2nd decimal place) The measures recorded from the ground and Third floor were combined to create a big set of data.

    • Word count: 1564
  15. Astrophysics. Aim: To determine the luminosity of the Sun using calculations.

    x 21.0 0.00276 x 5700 = 4.707 x 1026 Watts Uncertainty: � = (1 x 10-6) + 1 + 0.002 + 600 = 601.002001 � �601 Luminosity of Sun = 4.707 x 1026 �601 W Conclusion & Evaluation: Based on the results and my calculations, the luminosity of the Sun is 4.707 x 1026 �601 Watts. The accepted value for the luminosity of the Sun is 3.846�1026 W1, so, therefore, the value I deduced is 18.3% higher than the accepted value. Although my obtained value may be considered similar enough to the accepted value, my calculated uncertainty does not include the acknowledged value.

    • Word count: 756
  16. Experiment to Measure the Heat of Fusion of Ice

    Theory: ?Qlost = mccc?T + mwcw?T Where: ?Qlost = heat lost (J) mc = mass of the calorimeter (g) cc = specific heat of the calorimeter (J/g?C) mw = mass of the warm water (g) cw = specific heat of water (J/g?C) ?T = T1 - T2 = change in temperature of the calorimeter and the warm water (?C) ?Qgained = miHf + micw?Ti Where: ?Qgained = heat gained (J) mi = mass of the ice (g) Hf = heat of fusion of ice (J/g)

    • Word count: 749
  17. F=ma using ticker timer

    - a is the actual acceleration of the trolley. s = ut +at2 ? a = First row: a = = 1.57ms-2 ?a is the absolute uncertainty of a. ?a = First row: ?a = = �0.015ms-2 (2s.f) F is the net force acting on trolley. F = Ma First row: F = = 1.25N ?F is the absolute uncertainty of F. ?F = First row: ?F = = �0.012N (2s.f.) Attached is the graph of a/ms-2 against F/N. The first value, (1.25, 1.57) is rejected as the net force, 1.25N, is larger than the second value of 1.17N.

    • Word count: 942
  18. THermal Physics Lab

    The heat lost from the liquids would be equal to heat gained by the cooler. Thus, it could be predicted that the bodies will ultimately reach thermal equilibrium which basically is the same temperature of all bodies. The dependant variable is the heat loss, Q, off hot water and hot milk. The independent variable would be the change in temperature, K. Controlled Variables include (1) the volume of both the liquids (2) the temperature of the liquids (3) the type and the size of the apparatus (4)

    • Word count: 1500
  19. Physics lab into the decomposition rate and the mass of the chewing gum

    The responding variable would be the mass of the gum. This would be determined by measuring the initial and the final mass and then they would be compared to find out the change or difference. The controlling variables include (1) the same apparatus such as the electronic balance and the stop watch (2) amount of time to chew for each trial (3) size and shape of the gum (4) initial mass of the gum To control the variables, the apparatus such as the electronic balance and the stop watch used should be the same every time.

    • Word count: 1198
  20. An investigation into the relationship between distance and sound

    The responding variable would be the sound intensity produced by the elastic band. The controlling variables would be the position of the apparatus, distance of the wall from the elastic band, same apparatus used and finally the type and surface of the wall. To control the variables, the positions of the apparatus should stay the same such as the speed level meter, the elastic band and the wall etc. the distance of the elastic band should be kept 12 cm away from the wall and same apparatus should be used. This could be done by using the materials from the same brand.

    • Word count: 1357
  21. Uniform motion Physics lab

    Aspect 2: 1. Calculating the period time: TP = Number of Frequencies Period Frequency TP = 1 (30.0 + 0.5) s-1 TP = 0.0333s EP = 0.0333s ( +0.5s-1 / 30.0s-1 ) EP = +0.0006s 2. Calculating the speed: v = distance / time = (0.016 + 0.001) m / (0.0333s + 0.0006) s = 0.048048ms-1 Ev = 0.048048ms-1 (( + 0.0006s/0.0333s) + ( + 0.001m/0.016m)) Ev = 0.004ms-1 Distance Interval Period Time (s) + 0.0006 Period Speed (ms-1 )

    • Word count: 702
  22. Motion of a Pendulum IB 10

    Length of pendulum ( +/- 0.001m) Time for trial 1 ( +/- 0.005s) Time for trial 2 ( +/- 0.005s) 30 20 9.150 9.140 10 20 8.980 8.950 Aspect 2: 1. Calculating the period average: e10avg = (19.400 + 0.005s) + (19.020 + 0.005s) / 2 = 38.42 + 0.01s / 2 = 19.21 Error = ((0.005/19.4) + (0.005/19.02))*19.21 2. Calculating time for one period: T1 = (19.210 + 0.005s) / 10 = 1.9210 eT1 = (0.005 / 19.210) (1.9210) = 0.0005 3. Calculating frequency f = 1 / T f = 1 / (1.9210 + 0.0005s)

    • Word count: 1168
  23. Magnetic field around a conductor

    Research question How is the magnetic field (B) dependant on the current (I)? Independent variable: Current (I) Dependent variable: Magnetic field (B) Controlled variables: * Radius (r) * Permeability of free space (�0) Hypothesis The magnetic field due to a straight conducting wire follows the relationship and using this as a linear function with B as the y value and I as the x value the gradient will be �0/2?r. Then the gradient can simply multiplied by 2?r to find �0. The relationship should be linear as all parts of the gradient are constants.

    • Word count: 1439
  24. Laten Heat of Fusion Physic 20 IB Lab

    Materials: * Measuring cup * Ice cube * Water * Thermometer Procedure: 1. Prepare 1 cup of room temperature water(22�C)(Measure with thermometer) 2. Take an ice cube out of freezer(Record temperature) 3. Put ice cube in water; wait till the solution is all water. 4. Record temperature of water. 5. Repeat steps 1-4 with water temperatures of 30�C,and 38�C 6. Record mass of water and ice cube. Collecting Raw Data Trial 1(Water 22�C) Trial 2(Water 30�C) Trial 3(Water 38�C) Initial Temp of Ice Cube(�0.05�C) Final Water Temp(�0.05�C)

    • Word count: 570

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