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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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1. ## AIM: To find the specific heat capacity of a solid by method of mixtures.

Specific Heat Capacity of copper: 390 J kg-1 �C-1 Observation: Case 1: Mass of Water: 0.05 � 0.0001 kg Initial Temperature of Water and Calorimeter: 22 � 0.5 �C Initial Temperature of Metal: 95 � 0.5 �C Final Temperature of the mixture: 25 � 0.5 �C Case 2: Mass of Water: 0.08 � 0.0001 kg Initial Temperature of Water and Calorimeter: 24 � 0.5 �C Initial Temperature of Metal: 95 � 0.5 �C Final Temperature of the mixture: 26 � 0.5 �C Case 3: Mass of Water: 0.03 � 0.0001 kg Initial Temperature of Water and Calorimeter: 23 � 0.5

• Word count: 1055
2. ## AIM: To study Newtons second law of cooling.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Three beakers of different volume and different sizes, water, thermometer, stop watch, burner, measuring cylinder. VARIABLES CONTROLLED INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT RAW DATA: Least count of thermometer: 1 Uncertainty of thermometer: Time intervals (seconds) Beaker 1 (80ml) (in ) Beaker 2 (250ml) (in ) Beaker 3 (400ml) (in ) 30 59 59 59 60 58 58 58 90 57 57 52 120 57 56 52 150 56 55 51 180 56 54 50 210 55 53 50 240 55 53 49 270 55 52 48 300 54 51 47 330 54 51 47 360 53 50 46 390 53 50 45 420 52 49 45 450 52 48 44 480 52 48 44 510 51 47 43

• Word count: 652
3. ## investigate how the length factor of a pendulum string will affect the time period of a pendulum and to attempt and determine a mathematical relationship between the two.

that the length of a pendulum will certainly have an affect on the time period of a pendulum, and moreover, after investigating the formula above, I predict the relationship will be positive and exponential. In other words, if length is made four times greater, then the period should be only 2 times greater. I arrive at this hypothesis because if we look again at the relationship, and make 2? equal a certain constant k (and for us this is the case, since g, the acceleration due to gravity will remain constant), then we essentially have From this it becomes clear that the relationship between T and L is not linear but exponential and our results should show this.

• Word count: 1973
4. ## Determination of a metal

* The lengths where measured with a Vernier callipers There are six different objects Results Object Mass/g +- 0.005g Volume/ cm3 Density/ gcm-3 A 45.02 5.38 +-0.05 8.4 +-0.1 B 22.58 2.70 +-0.03 8.4 +-0.2 C 11.45 1.37 +-0.03 8.4 +-0.3 D 22.60 2.70 +-0.04 8.4 +-0.2 E 67.98 8.00 +-0.1 8.5 +-0.2 F 107.20 13.9 +-0.2 7.7 +-0.2 The relationship between Mass and Volume is proportional as we can see from the formula stated below: D = M/V Where D is the density M is the mass V is the volume We can rearrange the formula to enable us

• Word count: 838
5. ## Determination of g by freefall

Diagram Apparatus * Steel ball * Millisecond timer * Retort stand * Release and capture mechanism for the ball * Metre ruler Method The experiment was done as follows: * The apparatus was set up as shown in the Diagram up to (x) cm * The steel ball was stuck on the magnetic part of the release and capture mechanism for the ball as the power was switched on * The power button of the millisecond timer was switched on and as it stopped flashing its light, the release and capture machine was turned off and the amount of time for the ball to reach the capture box was recorded by the millisecond timer.

• Word count: 713
6. ## Frequency of the a guitar string

Method: We started out with weighing and measuring the length of the string. Next, we attached different weights to the string and observed how the different weights affected the frequency. Then we attached the 5 kg weight to the next string and measured to see how the different strings corresponded with the weight. There was a change in frequency each time we attached the 5 kg weight to a new string. A program on the computer recorded the frequency and it was written down in our notes.

• Word count: 596
7. ## Investigating Magnetic Pendulum

Keep the compasses at a 1 meter distance from the magnets to avoid unnecessary deflection 4. Vibrate it in the direction as shown in the diagrams below. 5. Repeat steps 1-2 for varying directions Note: The side view of all direction combinations is in the horizontal plane. The top view uses vertical and horizontal terms in its own respective sense i.e. the as viewed from the bird's eye projection. Part 1: Constant: 20 oscillations Distance of the string i.e. from the tied knot of the stand to the magnet = 6" Variables: Time (seconds) and Direction (arrow)

• Word count: 1544
8. ## The Affect of Mass on the Period

Therefore, both controlled variables could conceivably affect the period of the pendulum. If our hypothesis is correct, then the period of the pendulum will have an inverse response to the mass, meaning that as the mass increases, the period of the pendulum should decrease. The materials utilized in our experiment are listed in bullets below and set up according to the following diagram: > Pre-measured 20 gram mass > Pre-measured 50 gram mass > Pre-measured 100 gram mass > Pre-measured 200 gram mass > Pre-measured 250 gram mass > "Light" string (34cm)

• Word count: 2100
9. ## The Affect of Mass on the Time It Takes an Object To Fall

It is important that the density of the surrounding air remain the same because if it were to change, the amount of air resistance that the helicopter encounters would also change. For example, if the density of the air were lessened, then the helicopter rotors would not push up on as much air causing the air resistance to lessen. If our hypothesis is correct, the mass and the time will have an inverse relationship, meaning that as the mass increases the time it takes the helicopter to fall to the floor will decrease.

• Word count: 2469
10. ## Suspension Bridges. this extended essay is an investigation to study the variation in tension in the left segment of a relatively inelastic and an elastic string tied between two supports

Followed 11 Calculation of Tension 12 Primary Data Collected and Tension Calculated 13, 14, 15 Nylon String 14 Elastic Band 15 Strain Value of the strings 16 Data Analysis 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 Variation of Tension with Point of Application for Nylon String of length 140 cm 17 Variation of Tension with Point of Application for Elastic Band of length 140 cm 18 Comparison of the graphs for nylon string and elastic band 19 Axis of Symmetry 20 Variation of Tension with Point of Application for Nylon String of lengths 140, 144, 148 and 152 cm 21 Variation

• Word count: 6190
11. ## To investigate a free-falling cone.

I will use the same cone throughout my experiment to ensure reliable results. > Height of release: I will release the cone at a height of 1.5 meters. Equipment: 1. Meter Rule 2. Filter Paper 3. Plasticine 4. Stopwatch 5. Scotch tape 6. Scale Diagram: Method: 1.

• Word count: 408
12. ## Factors affecting an electromagnet

As with all other physics concepts, there is a calculation involved. The strength of the electromagnet can be obtained through the formula: B = (�NI)/ L. In this equation, B is the value for the strength of the magnetic field in Tesla (T), � is a constant which has a value of (4? x 10-7), N represents the number of turns the wire has on the nail, I is the amount of current that is passing through the wire, and L is the length of the nail used.

• Word count: 2000
13. ## UV rays

The abbreviation used for wavelength is the Greek letter lambda. Three main sources of UV rays are sunlight, mercury vapor lamp and fluorescent tubes. There are many uses of UV rays, some of them are, UV rays help to see the writing created by pens, detectors, tanning beds, mosquito b***s, as well as they are really helpful in butcheries as abundant UV rays kills bacteria that are on meat, and any other cells. The use of ultraviolet light is an attempt to imitate nature. Present are of course advantages and disadvantages of UV rays.

• Word count: 1087
14. ## Movement - modelling the height jumped by horses in the Olympics

And if I also double the height at which the ball is released, then the maximum height it reaches also will be four times greater. I think this because the point at which the ball is released directly affects the speed/velocity and the maximum height it reaches. I also think this because of the use of the Kinetic Energy formula, that when the point at which the ball is released doubles, then the velocity is squared and also doubles, which makes the velocity and the maximum height it reaches, four times greater. Therefore, height is proportional to velocity squared (v2).

• Word count: 2965
15. ## Temperature of the sun

�0.5 Temperature of water (�C) �0.5 300 29 600 31 900 33 1200 38 1500 42 1800 45 Calculation: Errors: Conclusion: The experimental value of the sun's temperature is 1867�C �80 The literal value of the sun's temperature is 5500�C My experimental value is not in range of the literal value, the results are different as there are uncertain factors.

• Word count: 262
16. ## hydro power

Results Below in the table of data we have 5 different measurements, and each measurement is repeated 5 times. The uncertainty in Height is estimated to be � 0.001(M), as it is the last decimal number of the height measurements. Displacement (S) Uncertainty is attained by subtracting the smallest measured Displacement from the biggest measured one, and then by dividing the difference by 2, we get the uncertainty in Displacement, and we can see that 4 of the Displacement measurements have the same uncertainty. Height h (m) � 0.0005 S1 (m) �0.0005 S2 (m) �0.0005 S3 (m) �0.0005 S4 (m)

• Word count: 798
17. ## Motion of the trolley on the inclined plane

Its size is 19�1 cm; its mass is not relevant. The most important part of the experiment included precise measurements. In order to do that, we repeated measurements of distance and time the trolley needed to travel given distance. Each measurement took place 10 times. Six distances measured ten times gave a total amount of sixty measurements. Using 10 measurements we calculate the average time taken to travel given distance. We added all ten measurements of time for each distance and divided by ten. The results can be seen in the Table 1.

• Word count: 1388
18. ## strength of an uncooked spaghetti

This means that the length of uncooked spaghetti will be inversely proportional to its strength i.e. the shorter the piece of uncooked spaghetti the stronger it would be and vice - versa. Independent Variables: The independent variable in this experiment was the known length of the piece of uncooked spaghetti. Dependent Variables: In this experiment, the dependent variable was the volume of water added to the plastic cup suspended on the piece of uncooked spaghetti. Controlled Variables: The controlled variables involved in this experiment were: the cross - sectional area of the spaghetti i.e.

• Word count: 1574
19. ## Issac Newton

Afterwards, he received his Bachelors Degree in 1665, however that summer the plague spread and put a temporary halt to his education. Isaac Newton was determined to succeed. As a result, he was elected to a minor fellowship at Trinity College and then earned his Master's Degree. He didn't stop there; he then was elected for a major fellowship and became a professor at Cambridge. Afterward, he was appointed Master of Mint, an important office in the British government in that period of time.

• Word count: 1825
20. ## IBPhysicsHL-Inclined Plane Lab

With there being 40 cm between the motion detector and the ramp the data that we collected could be extremely precise. The data would be precise and our acceleration would pin point. The only problem we had at the start was that it took time to set the motion detector to detect the car until we found the perfect place for the ramp to perceive the data. Coefficient of Friction: The coefficient of friction was taken away because of the equipment that we used.

• Word count: 1518
21. ## IBPhysics - Circular Motion Lab -MedepalliD

The stop watch that we had received was hard to use and had a slow reaction time. There would be error in the time between when we stopped the experiment and we stopped the timer as the timer was a slow reactor. Aspect 3 - Developing a method for collection of data 1. Gather all the materials which included: a. 1 hanging mass b. 1 stopper c. 1 meter stick d. 1 piece of string e. 1 test tube f.

• Word count: 1882
22. ## memory Vs Time

Prepare for the stop watch 3. Start the game while the stop watch starts 4. Stop the stopwatch when the pairs are all matched 5. Record the time 6. Set up the second sets of cards (colors and words is different) 7. Reset the stop watch 8. Start the game while the stopwatch starts 9. Stop the stopwatch when the cards are all matched 10. Record the time 11. Repeat the experiment three times with each person Controlled Variables The controlled variables will be the set of cards that we will be using in the experiment.

• Word count: 1819
23. ## design of a variable resistor

The lengths have to be same because if it is different, the test would not be fair. * Diameter of the wires (for testing lengths) - we will use the same type (size). The diameters have to be same because if it is different, the test would not be fair. * All the wires should be straight so that the electricity can travel easy. * Voltage - we will keep the power cell to 3 V to make the experiments fair. * Use the same apparatus (variable resistor, ammeter, volt meter) to make the experiments fair. Dependent variables: * Resistance - We will measure by using the volt meter and ammeter.

• Word count: 1893
24. ## Centripetal Motion

(s), g be acceleration due to gravity (ms-1), l be distance between centre of circle (cm), be mass of hanging grams (kg) and be mass of bung (kg). Now I will show how Tavg2 and ?T2 was calculated: First we calculate in kilograms, which is: . For example, =0.551s Then we have to find Tavg2 and to do that we find Tavg first, and the average is divided by 50 because the time is in 10 revolutions and I need find Tavg for 1 revolution: Tavg= , for example, =0.742s, then Tavg2= , for example, 2=0.551 s2.

• Word count: 696
25. ## Determining acceleration of free fall by of a simple pendulum.

will be given by the equation below g = 4?2__ gradient My variables are length of pendulum (l), time for oscillations (T), height from which pendulum is displaced and number of oscillations. My dependent variable is the time T for the oscillations as it depends on the pendulum length which is the independent variable. The number of oscillations and the height from which the pendulum is displaced are my constant and will not change. The apparatus I use in the experiment are as follows: > Pendulum bob > Meter rule > Stopwatch > Stand and clamp Method After obtaining the

• Word count: 1106