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# Investigating electromagnetic induction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating electromagnetic induction

Aim:

• To investigate the factors that cause electromagnetic induction in a coil
• To investigate the effect of the number of turns in a solenoid and the order of a magnet bar is inserted (whether it’s pushed or pulled out) to the current induced in the electromagnet

Hypothesis:

Number of turns in solenoid will make the effect to the strength of the current induced and the order which the magnet is pulled out or pushed in will affect the direction of the induced electromagnetic field

Variables:

 Dependent Independent Controlled Current Number of turns in solenoidOrder of magnet inserted Same magnet

Apparatus:

 Item Quantity Accuracy Styrofoam 1 - Solenoid 4 - Magnet 1 - Ruler 1 ± 1 cm Cable As needed - Ampere meter 1 -

Diagram

Methods:

1. Firstly, set up all materials that we need as the diagram shown
2. Then, drop the north end of a bar magnet towards the coils and insert it to the end for 10 times
3. Observe and record the reading on ammeter
4. Repeat it with bringing south pole towards and into the coil for 10 times
5. Change the bar magnets with bigger intensity (600×, 1200×, 3600×)
6. Observe and record data about the changes

Results / data collection:

Table1. Current induced in 300 turns from 10 cm

 North South Current ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 3 3 3 2 3.5 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3,5 3 2,5 3 3,5 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2,5 Mean ( ) 2.1 Mean ( ) 3.1 Mean ( ) 2.8 Mean ( ) 2.5

Table2. Current induced in 300 turns, from 15 cm

 North South Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2,5 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 Mean ( ) 2.80 Mean ( ) 2.95 Mean ( ) 3.1 Mean ( ) 2

Table.3 current induced in 600 turns from 10 cm

 North South Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 5 5 Mean ( ) 5.4 Mean ( ) 5.1 Mean ( ) 5.3 Mean ( ) 5.1

Table4. Current induced in 600 turns from 15 cm

 North South Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 6 5 5 4 5 5 5 Mean ( ) 4.2 Mean ( ) 5.2 Mean ( ) 5.3 Mean ( ) 5

Table5. Current induced in 1200 turns from 10 cm

 North South Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Mean ( ) 11.9 Mean ( ) 11.7 Mean ( ) 12 Mean ( ) 12

Table6. Current induced in 1200 turns from 15 cm

 North South Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 11 11 13 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Mean ( ) 12 Mean ( ) 11.9 Mean ( ) 12 Mean ( ) 11.9

Table7. Current induced in 3600 × from 10 cm

 North South Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 25 20 20 20 24 20 30 20 24 20 25 18 24 20 20 20 25 20 25 19 25 19 25 19 25 20 25 20 27 19 25 20 25 20 25 20 26 20 26 21 Mean ( ) 25 Mean ( ) 19.8 Mean ( ) 24.6 Mean ( ) 20.3

Table8. Current induced in 3600 ×from 15 cm

North

South

Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+)

Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-)

Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-)

Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+)

21

19

25

20

21

20

25

20

22

19

24

18

22

19

24

20

22

19

24

19

22

18

24

19

22

19

24

19

22

18

21

20

22

18

23

19

22

19

23

19

Mean ( ) 21.8

Mean ( ) 18.8

Middle

-0,1

0,01

3

-0,1

0,01

3

-0,1

0,01

3

-0,1

0,01

3

-0,1

0,01

3,5

0,4

0,16

3,5

0,4

0,16

3

-0,1

0,01

3

-0,1

0,01

Mean ( ) 3,1

Σ (I-Iaverage)2

0,4

Standard deviation: = =

Table3. Standard deviation

 Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 2 -0,8 0,64 3 0,2 0,04 2 -0,8 0,64 Mean ( ) 2,8 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 1,6

Standard deviation: = =

Table4. Standard deviation

 Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 2 -0,5 0,25 3 0,5 0,25 3 0,5 0,25 2 -0,5 0,25 3 0,5 0,25 2 -0,5 0,25 2,5 0 0 3 0,5 0,25 2 -0,5 0,25 2,5 0 0 Mean ( ) 2.5 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 2

Standard deviation: = =

Table5. Standard deviation

 Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 2 -0,8 0,64 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 3 0,2 0,04 2 -0,8 0,64 Mean ( ) 2.80 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 1,6

Standard deviation: = =

Table6. Standard deviation

 Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 2,5 -0,45 0,2025 3 0,05 0,0025 3 0,05 0,0025 Mean ( ) 2.95 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 0,225

Standard deviation: = =

Table7. Standard deviation

 Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 4 0,9 0,81 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 3 -0,1 0,01 Mean ( ) 3.1 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 0,9

Standard deviation: = =

Table8. Standard deviation

 Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean ( ) 2

Standard deviation:  =  0

Table9. Standard Deviation

 Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 5 -0,4 0,16 5 -0,4 0,16 5 -0,4 0,16 5 -0,4 0,16 5 -0,4 0,16 6 0,6 0,36 5 -0,4 0,16 6 0,6 0,36 6 0,6 0,36 6 0,6 0,36 Mean ( ) 5.4 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 2,4

Standard deviation: = =

Table10. Standard deviation

 Current I (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (-) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 5 -0,1 0,01 6 0,9 0,81 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 Mean ( ) 5.1 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 0,9

Standard deviation: = =

Table11. Standard Deviation

 Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (-) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 5 -0,3 0,09 5 -0,3 0,09 5 -0,3 0,09 5 -0,3 0,09 6 0,7 0,49 6 0,7 0,49 5 -0,3 0,09 5 -0,3 0,09 6 0,7 0,49 5 -0,3 0,09 Mean ( ) 5.3 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 2,1

Standard deviation: = =

Table12. Standard deviation

 Current  (mA) ΔI ±0.5 mA pull out (+) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 5 -0,1 0,01 6 0,9 0,81 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 5 -0,1 0,01 Mean ( ) 5.1 Σ (I-Iaverage)2 0,9

Standard deviation: = =

Table13. Standard Deviation

 Current  ΔI ±0.5 mA push in (+) (I-Iaverage) (I-Iaverage)2 5 0,3 0,09 5 0,3 0,09 5 0,3 0,09 5 0,3 0,09 5 0,3 0,09 5 0,3 0,09 4 -0,7 0,49 5 0,3 0,09 4

Conclusion

The difficulties that were encountered in conducting this experiment are releasing or push in the magnets through the solenoid. Sometimes, the position will not push into solenoid, sometimes miss in pushing in and touch the hand (injured). The other was reading the ampere meter. The accuracy of reading the current was not perfect. Sometimes, our eyes make a mistake in reading the current. The other was the possibilities of error in producing the results. The decimal place in ampere meter cannot be shown and it will improve our results.

My suggestion in conducting experiment is to change the better and modern ampere meter and learning how to read the ampere meter. Other suggestion is to use safety hand equipment for avoiding injured when the magnets push in to solenoid. For making the results perfect, maybe more trials should be done to make the accuracy and results better. For this suggestion, maybe can improve a lot and for better results in doing this kind of experiment and for avoiding some errors too.

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