Step 4- Record time output given by initial photogate.

Step 5- Repeat step 1 through 4 for 5 trials at the same angle on the air track.

Step 6- Increase the angle of the airtrack using a protractor (doesn't have to be incrementally) and repeat steps 1 through 5. Each time angle is changed, make sure to raise the photogates so as not to collide with glider. Also make sure photogates remain the same distance apart.

Data Table:

-To solve for the acceleration of the glider on an inclined plane you have to consider that a=gsinΘ because acceleration is proportional to gsinΘ as well as to the force of gravity, or g. Acceleration can be solved by finding the time it takes for the glider to pass through both photogates. By doing that you have both time and distance so the equation Δx=(1/2)at². Comparison of accelerations taken from both equations should show that data is accurate on the air track. Plug in the previous equation so that a=gsinΘ and it is possible to find acceleration through given data. Error was found through a quick calculation: the shortest trial subtracted from the longest trial and that value divided by 2.

Processed Data-Graph:

Conclusion and Evaluation:

The results of this experiment show that as the angle of inclination increases, as does the velocity, but the acceleration slowly decreases. My initial hypothesis was proven wrong through experimentation. Not only the hypothesis, but the two equations Δx=(1/2)at² and a=gsinΘ did not coincide in relation to the raw and processed data. As the angle increased, the acceleration should have approached 9.81m/s-². The percent error between the results of these 2 equations shows that there was no correlation between the two. Albeit the evidence, the range of the line of best fit did in factmatch the theoretical value of the slope. The y-axis was an expected range and it fit the range of the uncertainty. No evidence is shown for underestimation or overestimation of the uncertainties or errors in the raw and processed data. Overall the values recieved from the experiment did not at all support the theoretical or literature values because with the a=gsinΘ equation gave realistic values whereas the processed data showed that the accleration for an incline of 11 degrees was far above average. It is almost unrealistic to have an acceleration of 18.947m/s-² for such a small inclination.

A couple of problems that caused random and sytematic error that occurred during the experiment was the fact that the rubber band stopper allowed the glider to bounce back into the path of the second photogate changing our original timing and givin us invalid results (this was random error). The invalid timing increased our time for several trials and they had to be redone. Another problem that was encountered during the experiment was that each time the angle of inclination was increased, the photogates becamse too low to take a reading without hitting the glider (this was random error). This seriosuly affected the results because by not allowing passage of the glider, it was impossible to recieve any form of data anyways. The last problem that was encountered had to do with the glider itself, on several occasions the glider randomly lost speed throughout a trial and an inaccurate time was recorded (this was a systematic error). This last one was probably the most important error during the experiment because it probably led to the flawed and unaligned results, increased friction increased our times for several data points.

The first problem was fixed by changing the position of the bottom photgate from 100cm apart to 94 cm (+-1cm) maintaining the position of the first photogate at the top of the airtrack, this allowed for a greater distance between the stopper and the photgates so that the glider wouldn't be able to bounce back far enough into the photogate. The second was fixed by simple adjustment, after all five trials of a certain angle were completed, both photogates were raised 2 inches before the next angle's trials. By raising the photogates the glider could freely move through the aritrack and the photogates could accurately record the data. The last problem could not be solved during experimentation, but a recommendation would be to wipe both the glider and the airtrack before each trial and to sand the end of the glider before experimentation so that any excess metal would not scrape against the airtrack.

Bibliography:

Giancoli, Douglas C. Physics: Principles with Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.

"Inclined Planes." The Physics Classroom. ComPADRE. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. <>.

Masukawa, Jonathan M. "Relation between Acceleration and Angle of Inclination." . Web. 19 Oct. 2011. <>.

(did not use proceudre, simply used conclusion as verification)