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International Baccalaureate: Psychology
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Psychology Experiment. The study that is being replicated is the first experiment of J.R. Stroops The Stroop Effect, which involved the effect of interfering color stimuli upon reading names of colors serially.
This way of experimenting shows the true difference between the times it takes to respond when given one stimulus versus when given two stimuli; which naturally the latter one should take longer. The independent variable was the color of the words that were in a different color ink than the actual name of the color and the dependent variable was the speed in which a person could respond, verbally, measured in seconds. Ethical principles were maintained through issuing a consent form; to tell the participants what was expected to find in the experiment, there was a debriefing statement.
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Understanding Childrens Behaviour. The purpose of this writing is to explore the theoretical perspectives of Operant Conditioning Theory developed by B.F. Skinner, Classical Conditiong Theory of I.Pavlov and Social Learning Theory developed by A.
Operant Conditioning is very similar to classical conditioning. But in include reinforces. After a response occurs, due to a certain stimulus, reinforces (positive or negative) are inserted that will increase or diminish the probability that the behaviour may occur again. His famous work is the Skinner box where he would condition, pigeons, mice, and even his own daughter to learn anything he wanted them to. Compare and Contrast - B.F. Skinner's theory of Operant Conditioning has at its foundation a desire to demonstrate a "cause and effect" relationship between behaviour and reinforcement and focuses on predicting and controlling behaviour in observable ways (Skinner, 1953, p.
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Cognitive Approach to Moral Development Piaget's Stage Theory of Moral Development ==> Children pass through stages in their reasoning about what is right and wrong ==> The stages are universal - they apply to everyone ==> The stages are invariable - everyone goes through them in the same sequence. Piaget - Marbles Experiment Aim To find out how moral development occurred in children and whether they think that the idea of what is wrong and right is decided by others.
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The eldest son is a typical teenage boy whereas the eight-year-old is diagnosed as ADD and slightly autistic. In the fall of 2008, Mason's parents gave birth to a sister, whom unexpectedly because of unforeseen complications of the heart, passed away at only two days old. Currently Mason's mother is pregnant and expected to deliver a boy in February 2010. The father's educational credentials consist of a high school diploma and two years of undergraduate study; the mother has a high school diploma. Economically, the family is middle class with the father working full time and mother working part time.
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These principles must be abided by for the experiment to be considered ethical and for the experiment's findings to be validated. The existence of strict psychological ethical guidelines can be attributed to the outcry after several high-profile psychological experiments of the 20th century. The Nazi Medical Experiments performed upon unwitting Jewish participants during World War Two directly led to the creation of the 1947 Nuremberg Code (the first official set of ethical guidelines in the field of medicine) and the subsequent 1967 Helsinki Declaration, which is considered the cornerstone document in modern medical ethics.
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The "Kin Selection Theory" suggested that animals would cooperate, sometimes at a cost to their own survival or reproduction, even to the extent of sacrificing themselves, if this could help their relatives to reproduce, and cause ultimately an increase in the frequency of a gene among organisms of the same species in a certain environment. The "Selfish Gene" theory put forward by Richard Dawkins is a development of the Kin Selection Theory. By referring to genes as "selfish" Dawkins implied that they would attempt to maximise the number of copies of themselves replicated on a global scale, or, as termed by Dawkins, their "inclusive fitness".
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IB Psychology HL Take Home Final - The biological level of anaylsis. Most human traits show influence by more than one gene pair. Psychological traits are likely to depend on multiple genes; any single gene would influence many different behaviors.
As genes spontaneously mutate and recombine during the production of sperm and eggs, new genetic variations and new traits arise. In a particular environment, individuals with a genetically influenced trait tend to be more successful than other individuals in finding food, surviving the elements, and fending off enemies and therefore better at staying alive long enough to produce offspring-their genes will become more popular in population. Individuals, whose traits are not so adaptive to the struggle for survival, will not be so "reproductively fit".
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Dora was very intelligent and verbal so she took quickly to free association and seemed to understand Freud's ideas. Dora's conflict arose when her father was often ill and Frau K., who was a family friend, took more care of her father than her mother did and she eventually became her father's lover. Frau K.'s husband, Herr K., didn't seem to mind and kept himself contented with affairs with his servants. As Dora grew older and more attractive Herr K. turned his attention to her. He presented her with an expensive jewel case and tried to kiss her what disgusted Dora due to his strong cigar smell.
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The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of performing a concurrent task whilst observing a photo and how this results in inattentional blindness amongst the participants. Participants were to perform a simple task whilst observing the phot
1.0 Introduction: The adaptive human seeks to comprehend its surroundings. Sensations telling the brain of the objects in our surroundings and perception telling where and what they are. Together when linked they form a mental representation of reality. Through numerous consistent encounters of the same sensation or perception the mind forms mental schemas of the general surroundings. These sensations and perceptions are understood only after the mind has paid attention to these perceptions. Attention which is at highlight of this study is connected with the cognitive perspective that studies human mental processes.
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Foster, 1994, pp. 140-166) and perhaps means of treatment hopefully allowing the medical institution to reverse the upward trend in obesity in Western society. The book Obesity: Pathophysiology, Psychology and Treatment describes obesity rather eloquently: 'Being Fat in a Thin World'. While previously culture may have dictated that the svelte ideal was not the perfect body shape particularly during the Renaissance (Gary D. Foster, 1994, p. 141), today it is evident that with our modern society's pre-occupation, even obsession with this slender bodies and the lowering of the breast to waist ratio (Garner DM, 1980), the slimming of the ideal has been mirrored by the weight gain of the real (Gary D.
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These results supported and replicated the results of the Dukes and Bastian experiment and demonstrated that a list of concrete words was better recalled than a list of abstract words. Introduction The Dukes and Bastian study (1966) investigated the differences in the level of recall of lists of concrete and abstract words. Paivio's theory on dual coding (1969) predicted that concrete nouns would have a higher recall than abstract nouns; the reason for this was that concrete words had a verbal basis and a literal basis, for e.g.
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Participants of the study were 36 boys and 36 girls with a mean age of 52 months. The main procedure of the experiment was that the children were individually shown into a room containing toys and played with them in a corner for 10 minutes. While the main procedure was in process, a few other procedures were continuing. The non-aggressive adult model played in a quiet and subdued manner for 10 minutes, or the aggressive model distinctively aggressed against an inflated Bobo doll by punching or kicking it with verbally aggressive statements.
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It can be augmented or decreased depending on one's surroundings; for example, trying to read a book while babysitting four children would be more difficult than doing homework in a closed quiet room. This is because there are other stimuli that need to be blocked out in order to focus on the book. Environment and learning also play crucial roles in our cognition of something. What we have been preconditioned to accept or understand will always dominate new or unfamiliar ideas (Engel-Andreasen, Michael).
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Describe and evaluate the historical and cultural conditions that gave rise to the Learning Perspective.
Famous for his quote, "I think, therefore I am" (We Didn't Start the Fire, 2008), Descartes' ideas were opposing those of the majority of other renowned psychologists. Next in the chronological timeline, John Locke (1632-1704) reinforced the subject of empiricism. This theory suggests that very few qualities, such as reflexes like breathing or sucking (as a baby) are inbuilt. All our knowledge is based on education from experiences. Further emphasizing this point, he claimed that a baby is born with tabula rasa, meaning blank slate, which over time is transformed into knowledge and understanding (Carter 2008).
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An experiment to investigate the effect of categorical organisation on the recall of words on a page
Mandler (1967), cited in Organisation of memory booklet, performed a study that asked participants to organise a list of words into categories (between two and seven categories) and then recall the words. According to Mandler there was higher recall when more categories were used and that the subjects who used seven categories recalled, on average, twenty words more than the ones who used only two. Mandler used subject-based organisation due to the fact that the words had no structure when given to the subjects.
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et al.'s research revealed, a better recall observed in the group that had the words in an organized format than the group with the random format. Thus, it supports the hypothesis and establishes the fact that organization does positively affect recall. INTRODUCTION Memory shares a very close, highly correlative relationship with learning. It serves as the most important, crucial part in the process of learning for humans and other animals. Since learning signifies some kind of permanent change in our behavior or a personal response benefitting/ derived from a past experience, it requires us to remember things; and memory is the process by which we are able to store, retain and recall information.
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?Argument 1: Co-operation over superordinate goals reduces prejudice. (pursuit of common goals) Superordinate goal: a goal that neither group can achieve separately, but can achieve together since it is bigger than or more important than other lesser goals. Exp) Sherif's Robber's Cave experiment (1958) -Hypothesis: more intense competition (conflict�), more hostility. But when conflicts are reduced, hostility would decrease and cooperation will increase. -Methods: Design: Field experiment Participants: 20 boys, 11~12 years old with similar background and same grade level. They were considered normal and ordinary. Materials: A boy scout camp in the Robber's Cave, State Park, Oklahoma.
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The process was repeated five times more in one week, followed by two more pairings 17 days after. Generalization was then observed. Albert was presented with a variety of stimuli that resembled the rat, (eg: a Santa Claus mask and a fur-coat) all of which he quickly slapped at without touching. Through their observations, Watson and Rayner concluded that emotional responses to stimuli could be learnt. The once unemotional Little Albert became afraid of rats and anything resembling one. However, despite the observations, which appeared to support their theory, the experiment still had its weaknesses, which may have influenced its reliability and validity.
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A photo recognition test. 3) A name recognition test. 4) A name and photo matching test. Findings: 90% accuracy in face and name recognition after 34 years. 80% accuracy for name recognition after 48 years. 40% accuracy for face recognition after 48 years. 60% accuracy for free recall after 15 years. 30% accuracy for free recall after 30 years. Conclusion: Classmates were rarely forgotten once recognition cues had been given. This supports the idea that people have VLTM. Recognition was better than recall.
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It is no wonder that teenagers are increasingly becoming obsessed with thinness. In fact, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are much more common among teenagers. This being said, then why are teenagers especially vulnerable to eating disorders? Understanding this disturbing social phenomenon is very complex. Strive for thinness is definitely not generated by just a single factor. Above all, the mirror neurons are largely responsible for the body rituals teenagers are practicing. These neurological structures in the brain, aided by visuals on mass media, can lead many teens to get involved in the pursuit of thinness demands.
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This information formulates questions concerning , to what extent do out of body experiences exist, and how OBE?s be induced? The scope of my investigation through finding the answers to my provided questions , will explore, what an OBE experience is, as well as when they will occur. show multiple accounts and testimonies, from those who claim they have experienced an OBE as well as laboratory scientific experiments of attempts to induce out of body experiences on patients. Although scientist have formed their personal opinion about Out of body experiences as well as positions derived from their own experiments, In
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Emotions may occur because of individual, genetic make-up, and group factors. Individual emotions serve as an appetizer, and make one stay away from physical abuse. Individual emotions are unique because they often help with survival. Fear responses evoke either fight or flight. Devon (2006) pointed out that avoiding threats is what reflexes should do. Genes are supported by genetic emotions; including genetic conceptions, genetic sensations, and genetic involuntary expressions. Indeed, group emotions have a role in supporting the group solely. Communities, religions, countries, companies, professions, colleges, and social clubs are all groups.
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There seems to be a correlation between both the tests, however, the participant?s first language, and linguistic skills should be considered for this experiment. Word Count ? 173 words. Keywords ? colour, Stroop, effect, test, variable, perception, discrepancy, pattern ________________ Introduction The cognitive approach in psychology studies internal mental processes, such as thinking, problem solving, memory and language. Information processing is often aided or hampered by some factors, the main among the being ?attention.? Attention, as studied in cognitive psychology, is the idea of how certain information is processed as it is present in our surroundings.
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Outline the principles of social cultural level of analysis and explain how they maybe demonstrated through researches and theories
Asch used a lab experiment to study conformity, where 123 male students from Swarthmore College in the USA participated in a ?vision test?. Using the line judgment task, Asch put a naive participant in a room with four to six confederates. The confederates had agreed in advance what their responses would be when presented with the line task. The real participant did not know this and was led to believe that the other seven participants were also real participants like themselves.
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