Psychodynamics - Methodology
Explain how different research methodologies (e.g. case study, observation, interviews) used in psychodynamic psychology may affect the interpretation of behavior The psychodynamic psychology attempts to understand behavior in terms of the workings of the mind, with an emphasis on motivation and the role of past experience. Accordingly, the focus is on the internal processes that cannot be observed directly. With the strong emphasis on the role of unconscious, the research methods that can reveal inner mental processes should be selected. Deciding upon which methodologies to use to be able to best investigate the mental processes can in turn strengthen or doubt the theory that will emerge form the findings. Freud, as a leading figure of psychodynamic psychology, attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on unconscious determinant of behavior. According to him, unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well bellow the surface of conscious awareness, but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. He developed psychoanalysis, a theory and a therapy based on his concern with human mental disorders, such as irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties. His approach to methodology was qualitative and he used forms of post-modern content analysis. His entire research was based on case studies because by its
Using a psychological framework, explain what is meant by free will and determinism.
Using a psychological framework, explain what is meant by free will and determinism. The discussion over free will vs. determinism started thousands of years ago and has been one of the longest debates in history, still going on today. In the 16th century everyone believed that they had no choice in life and that god and the church decided everything. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, a Dutch philosopher, disagreed with this idea and argued against Martin Luther who delivered this message, as the spokesperson of the church. Erasmus was one of the first to contradict this idea with the concept of Free will, which is that you have a free choice of how to behave. This debate has been going on for centuries and it will go on even longer in the future. Free will is the concept that we can freely and actively have a choice, without outside factors and circumstances having an impact on your decisions. Those who believe in free will, for example humanists, discuss that even though our decisions are affected by the internal and external circumstances, do choose to act as they do. They believe that in a certain situation, if you have chosen to act a certain way it have been different from the way you act according to the circumstances. Most people like to believe that there is such a thing because it doesn't make humans seem like puppets held on strings. They believe that we have at
Balancing Work and Family
Balancing Work and Family Work and family are both central to our way of life. Finding a balance between the two is an issue of importance to men, women and employers. Today, nearly 50 percent of families have two wage earners. Less than one-fifth of families are "traditional" breadwinner/homemaker families.1 Research suggests that when adults add children to their family, men and women tend to become more traditional in how they divide workloads. In other words, tasks become delegated by gender rather than by interest or ability. However, in order to successfully balance multiple roles, adults may need to become even less traditional than they were before becoming parents. Today, nearly 50 percent of families have two wage earners. Managing more numerous and complex work and family roles is a source of stress for many of us. Stress comes from two primary sources: role strain and spillover. Role strain occurs when the responsibilities of one role interfere with performing other roles. For example, a job that requires long hours or excessive travel may have a negative impact on a partnership or parenting role. Spillover is when the conditions and relationships in one area of our lives affect us in another area. For example, inflexible work hours, an overbearing supervisor, or a less-than-positive work environment can have a negative impact on your family life. Family
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which causes the victim to be unable to tell the difference between reality and non-reality experiences, unable to think reasonably, unable to have normal emotional responses, and unable to act normally in public situat
Schizophrenia: A Disorder of Illusion and Reality Ryan Mathews, Dominic Nguyen, and David Poretto Coach Hailey Health Period 2 0 October 2009 Schizophrenia: A Disorder of Illusion and Reality Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which causes the victim to be unable to tell the difference between reality and non-reality experiences, unable to think reasonably, unable to have normal emotional responses, and unable to act normally in public situations. The name "schizophrenia" was derived from Greek roots. "Schizo" means "split", and "phren" means mind in Greek. The main causes of schizophrenia are from genetic vulnerability and social and environmental risk factors. Schizophrenia usually runs in families, in which relationship is essential in determining the risk of attaining schizophrenia. If an identical twin has schizophrenia, then the other twin has a 48 percent chance of developing schizophrenia also. On the contrary, if a first cousin has schizophrenia, then he or she has a 2 percent chance of developing schizophrenia. Social and environmental factors are important because it may influence the emotional and physical body changes of teen undergoing puberty or hormonal changes in ways such as viruses, poor social interaction with others, and high stress. Schizophrenia normally occurs in people in their teenage years or in their twenties and thirties.
To Shake Off the Mortal Coils
To Shake Off the Mortal Coils A permanent solution to a temporary problem - that is what the wise and good people state to help. The way they make suicide look like a decision based on cowardice is remarkable, when in the end it is a clear statement of one's strength - at least mine. I cannot speak for all those others. For all those others that take sleeping pills to attract attention. For those that wait on the roof of a skyscraper until someone notices them to call the cops. I can only speak for myself, and my decision is not based on weakness but on absolute power. Hamlet said it, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Camus and Sartre considered the question. It is not based on weakness but on a free will, the liberty to contemplate the unthinkable. It is a question only the strongest can face. They say it is easy to escape life but hard to go on with it. What fools. How many people can hold a gun to their head and pull the trigger? How many can cut a knife into their arms to pierce arteries and veins? How many can make the little step off a skyscraper? How many can swallow the cyanide pill? Small movements, a jerk of an index finger, a cut, a step, a swallow. How many think they can do that but have to face their weakness on the doorsteps of a mysterious, scaring new existence? How many have the mental strength to deal with such a decision? How many can
Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies Models are attempts to describe complex phenomena; they are changed and developed based on research findings. They multi-store model suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin, and the working memory model suggested by Baddeley and Hitch are two models describing the cognitive process of memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin were among the first to suggest a basic structure of memory, with their multi-store model. They model was based on two assumptions: first, that memory consists of a number of separate stories and second, that memory processes are sequential. The memory stores are seen as components that operate in conjunction with the permanent memory stove through processes such as attention, coding, and rehearsal. People need to pay attention to something in order to remember it, and they need to give the material a form which enables them to remember it. Rehearsal means keeping materials active in memory by repeating it until it can be stored. A strength of this model is that it puts the process of memory into simple, specific steps. This model sparked research based on the idea of information processing. The model contains several stores. Information from the world enters sensory memory, which relates to different senses. Then some information will continue to the short-term memory (STM),
Outline the historical or cultural factors that led to the development of the biological perspective
Outline the historical or cultural factors which led to the development of the Biological perspective. Over the last century or so, the practise of psychology began to formally include certain aspects of the scientific method into its ways of looking at human behaviour. This perspective - the Biological perspective - involves the idea that all human behaviour has a physiological basis and that the body and mind are a single entity. However, this perspective which is taken much for granted now did not arise from nowhere. The fundamental basics of this perspective can be traced back as far as the Egyptian and Greek times, although the perspective didn't advance much more until quite recently when technological advancements have allowed newer types of research to be performed and different types of information to be uncovered. The Greeks were a powerful nation, excelling in every subject from theatre to philosophy. The age of the philosophers began at about 600 BC with Thales. Philosophy was the beginning of all scientific thought and it later branched of into psychology, however, some of the basic premises of the biological perspective are visible in some Greek philosophers' ideas. Alcmaeon said in the 5th century BC that the brain was the 'seat of the soul', implying that the brain did in fact play a part in cognitive functioning, and a century later Plato agreed with this.
Commentary on "Blessing" by Imtiaz Dharker
"Blessing" by Imtiaz Darker The skin cracks like a pod. There never is enough water. Imagine the drip of it, the small splash, echo in a tin mug, the voice of a kindly god. Sometimes, the sudden rush of fortune. The municipal pipe bursts, silver crashes to the ground and the flow has found a roar of tongues. From the huts, a congregation : every man woman child for streets around butts in, with pots, brass, copper, aluminium, plastic buckets, frantic hands, and naked children screaming in the liquid sun, their highlights polished to perfection, flashing light, as the blessing sings over their small bones. Commentary One technique that Dharkar uses to convey the desperation and the terrible drought of the land is through different sounds, including alliteration, onomatopoeia, and sibilance. Dharkar uses onomatopoeia, which is a word that imitates a sound, throughout the entire poem. At the beginning the word "cracks" (1) represents the dry and withered earth, which is then replaced by the words "drip" and "splash" (3), which are also examples of onomatopoeia, highlighting the need, the desire for water. These words emphasize the desperate need for liquid, that only a tiny amount is cherished and desired. Therefore "drip" illustrates only a tiny amount. This is exemplified by the fact that when reading the poem these three words are sounds, made
Peterson and Peterson (1959) Aims: To prove that things only stay in short term memory for around 20 seconds and then, if it is not rehearsed, it disappears forever. Procedures: Participants were given sets of trigrams to learn and then tested on their recall. They had to recall them after 3, 6, 9, 12 or 18 seconds. They also had an interference task, counting backwards, in threes from a random number. The independent variable was the time delay and the dependant variable was how good the recall was. Findings: After 3 seconds: 80% After 6 seconds: 50% After 18 seconds: Less than 10% Conclusions: They had proved their hypothesis, there was very little left of the trace after approx. 20 seconds. It also proved that there was a distinct difference between the LTM and the STM. Criticisms: It lacks mundane realism because the likelihood of the recall of trigrams in real life probably wouldn't happen. The trigrams are not meaningful. Other research has shown that more meaningful things are remembered. Bahrick et al (1975) Aims: They aimed to test VLTM. They wanted to see whether long term memory was infinite. Procedures: Participants included 392 American ex-high school students aged 17-74. Recall was tested in four ways. ) Free recall of the names of as many of their former classmates. 2) A photo recognition test. 3) A name recognition test. 4) A name and
La vida eterna: qu es?
APDE Cristina Morataya Centro Escolar Campoalegre 10/03/08 Diversificado Clave: 15 Ensayo IV "BI" Religión Nota: La vida eterna: ¿qué es? Desde la antigüedad hasta nuestros días, la búsqueda de la verdad ha estado presente en la historia de la humanidad. El hombre siente deseos por saber acerca de varias cosas: su origen, el porqué de su existencia, acerca de la muerte y el sufrimiento y sobre todo si existe el más allá. Durante su vida, el hombre busca encontrarle respuestas a sus preguntas. La vida eterna ¿qué es?, ¿cuál es la relación entre vida eterna y esperanza? Es la búsqueda de la felicidad lo que hace de la vida eterna fuente de esperanza. El más allá o vida eterna se define como la participación del hombre en la vida divina por toda la eternidad. Se considera que la vida eterna es únicamente la felicidad plena y no el castigo eterno. Las personas cuyas obras fueron signo de amor hacia Dios y hacia el prójimo irán al cielo. Por esto, todas las acciones humanas deben estar centradas en Dios con el fin de encontrar y vivir en plena felicidad con Él en el cielo. La vida eterna es una "desconocida realidad conocida"1. Es una realidad conocida porque la inmortalidad puede ser captada por la razón natural y además Dios lo ha revelado y su Hijo lo ha confirmado al enseñar que existe vida en el más allá por