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International Baccalaureate: Psychology

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  1. Analyze the biological etiology of Major Depressive Disorder:

    Duenwald (2003), for example, has recently suggested that a short variant of the 5-HTT gene may be associated with a higher risk of depression, as it plays a role in serotonin pathways ? which have been linked to controlling mood, emotions and sleep. The fact that concordance rates for MZ twins in Nurnberger & Gershon (1982) is significantly below 100%, however, indicates that genetic factors do not give us the whole picture. Therefore, despite higher concordance rates in MZ twins, it is clear we cannot rule out the influence of the environment.

    • Word count: 957
  2. Psychological Therapies

    There are several major kinds of therapies used. The first therapy is called behavior therapies. Behavior therapies are action therapies based on the principles of classical conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without the concern for the original causes of such behavior. This therapy is based on the teachings of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Behavioral therapists work to change problematic behaviors that have been trained through years of reinforcement. A good example of behavioral therapy would be a therapist working with a client to overcome a fear of heights.

    • Word count: 813
  3. Psychology biological level of analysis revision

    The researchers took blood samples before the monks ascended the mountain. The monks were exposed to the harsh autumn weather, did not speak or consume water or food. After approximately 48 hours, the monks began to hallucinate claiming that they saw ancient ancestors or they felt their presence. Immediately, blood tests were taken and stated that serotonin levels increased. They concluded that sensory deprivation triggered the release of serotonin. Increased serotonin activates the hypothalamus and frontal cortex which results in hallucination. Thus behaviours have physiological origins so humans should be studied as biological systems.

    • Word count: 4137
  4. Evaluate the multi store model of memory.

    The above statement is not true because you can hold unlimited amount of information in the LTM and this information can be called back at any time, as it is needed. The second criticism of the multi-store model is that KF suffered head injuries from a motorcycle accident. His STM was severely impaired but he showed LTM learning after his accident. This model suggests that the only way for information to get to the LTM is though STM, this cases proves that this is not always the case and that sometimes information goes straight to the LTM 4, Describe one study that supports the multi-store model of memory.

    • Word count: 1353
  5. Where does Schizophrenia Lie in the Spectrum of Nature vs Nurture?

    and phren, phren- (?mind?)) is a mental disorder that was first recognized by a doctor named Emile Kraepelin in 1887. It was believed that it accompanied mankind long before it was first identified. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms many of which include the loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, and odd behavior. Patients who have schizophrenia are often misinterpreted as people who have a multiple personality, however it is actually a deterioration of personality. A Swiss Doctor named Eugen Bleuler closely observed schizophrenia in 1908 (The History of Schizophrenia).

    • Word count: 3886
  6. Is eyewitness testimony reliable?

    Page 7 Misleading Questions????????????????????????????????????? Page 7 Anxiety and Stress??????????????????????????????????????.. Page 9 Weapon Focus????????????????????????????????????????? Page 11 Reconstructive Memory???????????????????????????????????. Page 11 Confident Testimony?????????????????????????????????????. Page 14 Age?????????????????????????????????????????????.?? Page 15 Gender?????????????????????????????????????????????. Page 16 Conclusion?????????????????????????????????????????? Page 17 References ????????????????????????????????????????.... Page 19 ________________ INTRODUCTION The reliability of eyewitness testimony has often been questioned in cases of crime and violence but yet the judicial system seems to ignore its flaws. Numerous psychologists have carried out experiments and studies regarding this issue. Eyewitness testimony has a large psychological background that judges, lawyers and the jury seem to ignore. Our ability to remember certain situations and events may be distorted according to the time and place that the event occurred or the time and place that the eyewitness testimony is given.

    • Word count: 4655

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