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International Baccalaureate: Psychology

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    Is it difficult to participate in society for those who live in an impoverished life? Many would say that people living in poverty are behind in our cultural movement; that he or she lack the essentials to be on an equal level with the rest of society. Many theories have been applied to the issue of poverty with controversy over how and if the poverty problem should be addressed! Inequality, homelessness, and the idea of the American dream also has an influence on poverty needing $ to have any standard of life. ?A theory of poverty promoted in 1959 by Oscar Lewis? is the idea of a culture of poverty theory.

    • Word count: 1370
  2. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on behaviour.

    To begin with, the way culture affects construal of self will be explained. According to Markus and Kitayama (1991), collectivistic cultures often focus on relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, conforming and interdependence with others. In contrast, in individualist societies, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. These construals can influence individual?s cognition, emotion and motivation, when then affects our behaviour such as attribution, conformity, relationship and attitudes towards mental disorders.

    • Word count: 1758
  3. To What Extent Can Music Improve a Child's Intelligence?

    Table of Contents Abstract Introduction The Effect of Music Instruction on Intelligence Music and Linguistic Intelligence Music and Mathematical Intelligence Music and IQ IQ Tests and Bidirectionality Conclusion References and Citations Introduction Music is a fundamental part of our lives and it exposes itself to us every day, whether it is by a catchy jingle from an ad on TV or this year?s hit new songs on the radio. Music is able to affect everyone in a multitude of ways, such as eliciting strong emotional responses or improving creativity.

    • Word count: 4908
  4. Describe and Evaluate Crammer (1997) Personality and defence mechanisms in adolescents.

    different results would be found. Procedure: The participants were 46 females and 45 males, who were part of a longitudinal study. Data had been collected from the age of 3 years. They came from a mixture of backgrounds and were all 23 years old. The identity personality (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed or achieved) was tested using the Q-sort prototype for Ego Identity Status. The test was set up to include cards with statements on them, and the participants were asked to sort the cards/statements according to what they felt applied to them.

    • Word count: 459
  5. To What Extent Is Memory A Reliable Process?

    There is, however, a limitation to this conclusion--memory is subjective to the stimulus word of a specific schema, recalling only certain details aligned with the schema and ignoring aspects that do not cohere with it. A similar study conducted by Brewer and Treyens (1981) both supported and challenged schema theory. They invited 30 participants to wait in a room for 35 seconds, designed to appear like an office, containing several high-office schema and low-office schema objects. The participants were then given an unprecedented recall test.

    • Word count: 1485
  6. This essay will evaluate flashbulb memory on how emotion can affect cognitive process.

    Essentially, the main premise of flashbulb memory is that it is resistant to change, long lasting, and accurate in detail. It is due to the emotional aroused experience during the moment and immediacy an individual has to an event, which registered a permanent and increasing residence in their memory. Brown and Kulik (1977) conducted a study to investigate their emotion theory. Forty white Americans and 40 black Americans participated in a questionnaire that measured the elaborate clarity of important historical events such as JFK?s assassination.

    • Word count: 1573
  7. Discuss Environmental and Physiological Effects on Cognition

    During the winter of 1981, 11 patients were treated with bright white lights and all experienced some antidepressant effect. The results may be dramatic for such a small sample size as it shows that a brighter environment can counteract depression. Yet, there are lots of discrepancies relating to this experiment. First of all, the SAD article was written in a newspaper, which asked people to take apart. People knew in advance that light was supposed to be good for you after reading the article.

    • Word count: 1044
  8. Discuss the effectiveness of strategies for coping with stress.

    Exercise is any activity that requires physical effort designed to improve or sustain physical health. Exercise can help reduce stress for a person by releasing endorphins and other chemicals such as dopamine and serotonin are released. These give an increased sense of well being- this helps to make the stressor feel less significant and more manageable. Exercise also increases blood flow to the brain and helps to relax tense muscles. One example of an exercise that could be done to relieve stress is running. Szabo 2003 conducted a study into psychological effects of exercise. Ninety-six first year university students enrolled in Sport and Exercise Psychology lectures were invited to participate in this research as part of a practical session.

    • Word count: 963
  9. Of Dreams and Reality: A paper on hypnosis and dream analysis

    Hypnosis and dream analysis provides that opportunity to examine the innermost underpinnings of one?s mind, and in many ways, the whole experience can be captured in the phrase ?of dreams and reality? a middle ground between consciousness and unconsciousness. Dreams, as Freud theorizes, are actually forms of wish fulfillment, secret conflicts and desires that are unmet in real life which manifest in the form of the dream. Thus those dreams which are most memorable may actually be a literal or symbolic representation of what we really want in life.

    • Word count: 1585
  10. Discuss the effectiveness of one health promotion strategy - fear appeals.

    This is suggested by the Health Belief Model. The Health Belief Model is a psychological model, which attempts to predict and explain health behaviours by focusing on the beliefs and attitudes of individuals. According to the health belief model, fear appeals can only be effective in causing an individual to change their behaviour in order to benefit their health if the individual perceives that they are at a significant risk and if the change in their behaviour is realistic to the individual and the cost is not too great.

    • Word count: 820
  11. PET and MRI Scans of the brain

    The sugar hits the bloodstream and flows to the brain, which needs huge amounts of energy to keep all its nerve cells running. 6. The most active areas of the brain need the most sugar -- while damaged and less active areas need much less. By detecting the weak radiation signal from the sugar molecules as they travel throughout the brain, PET scanners can make a picture of brain cell activity.

    • Word count: 575
  12. Discuss how ethical considerations would be addressed before and during a psychological study

    Also, from the very start of the study, the participants must be aware of their right to withdraw from the study. This right would be held by the participating boys till the very end of the study, with any boy being able to pull the data he provided out of the results at any time. To address this issue, the boys would ideally be reminded at the beginning and end of each research method of their right to withdraw.

    • Word count: 545
  13. Using one relevant research study, show how a principle that defines the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated.

    The second principle means that everyone behaves differently because of our genetical difference, this could mean that we behave in a certain way also because of evolution. The last principle states that with a certain behaviour there is correlated a certain biological activity, for example the release of a certain hormone. With Rosenzweig study on experience and brain growth with the use of rats at least two of the principles above could be analysed, but in this case the use of animals will be the principle to be analysed with respect to this study.

    • Word count: 503
  14. To what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour? Use relevant research studies in your response.

    Human Genome Project ? which is a project which was started about a decade ago to analyze human DNA and its genes ? is very useful since it actually lets researchers understand what they can analyze more in depth than how it once was. One of the most important studies in this part of the psychology is the Minnesota Twin Study. In this study the participants were normal couples of brothers and sisters, dizygotic twins brought up together, dizygotic twins brought up apart, monozygotic twins brought up together and monozygotic twins brought up apart.

    • Word count: 846
  15. Cultural Barriers in Multicultural Psychotherapy -A.W.

    and their clients. Common differences arise in the areas of (1) the value of individualism versus collectivism; (2) verbal, emotional, and behavioural expressions; (3) preferred therapeutic approaches; and (4) views regarding the separation of the mind and body. Individualism is associated with the Caucasian culture and collectivism with non-Caucasian cultures. The Caucasian culture tends to stress the importance of having a single identity that is not defined by any-thing or anyone else, whereas in non-Caucasian cultures, a person?s identity is often defined by his or her family or cultural group.

    • Word count: 1417
  16. Adrenaline, Oxytocin or Melatonin, which is the most powerful?

    It also leads to increase in blood sugar levels, higher heart rate and increase in blood pressure. Why is adrenaline stronger than oxytocin and melatonin? Well, while melatonin regulates the body?s circadian rhythm (the body?s internal 24 hour clock) and oxytocin triggers contractions and n****e stimulation, adrenaline essentially turns your body into a ?war machine.? Basically, it drives the body to the highest levels of energy and concentration in order to prepare it to fight for the single most important thing in life, survival.

    • Word count: 555
  17. Using empirical evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality

    Furthermore, nowadays there are many statistically frequent behaviors, such as depression, but they are still considered as abnormal. When examining limitations of statistical infrequency cultural relativism should also be considered. Some mental disorders are more statistically infrequent in some groups than others, probably due to culture. A striking example of this limitation can be depression in China. Zhang et al reported a survey in 12 regions in China in 1993 where only 16 out of 19,223 people said they had suffered from a mood disorder.

    • Word count: 1984
  18. An experiment to investigate whether word connotation truly does have an effect on memory

    For this reason, this experiment failed in showing that connotations have any significant effect on the schema and reconstructive memory theory. Table of Contents Abstract pg.1 Introduction pg.2 Method pg.5 Design pg.5 Participants pg.5 Materials pg.6 Procedure pg.6 Results pg.7 Discussion pg.8 References pg.10 Appendices pg.11 Appendix I pg.11 Appendix II pg.12 Appendix III pg.12 Appendix IV pg.13 Appendix V pg.13 Appendix VI pg.13 Appendix VII pg.14 Appendix VIII pg.14 Appendix IX pg.15 Appendix X pg.16 Appendix XI pg.17 Introduction Memory (as a mental process)

    • Word count: 5047
  19. Social Identity Theory in Gender

    There wasn't a defying line of rivalry but rather as a distinctive gender role and identity, where males and females have very individual perceptions of what each gender should possess as an intergroup quality. Children, despite their young age, are familiar with traits that tell differences between men or women and are familiar with what they believe, are appropriate behaviors for female and males to act in society whether from adult-model influences or the media. Men "need" to have muscular appeals and masculine qualities, whatever that may entail to fulfill the role as a male.

    • Word count: 653
  20. Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis of abnormal psychology.

    Szasz for example stated that often labels are given to people (such as mentally ill) so to isolate them. Another study considered how isolating patients in institutes can be ethically unjust since it causes several problems both for the doctor and for the patient. This was the study conducted by Rosenhan in 1973. Culture affects diagnosis. This is caused by the fact that the standards for abnormality differ from culture to culture and from society to society. This can cause problems when considering the validity and reliability of diagnosis. An example which can be used to demonstrate one cultural consideration was the study conducted by Rack in 1982.

    • Word count: 943

    This information formulates questions concerning , to what extent do out of body experiences exist, and how OBE?s be induced? The scope of my investigation through finding the answers to my provided questions , will explore, what an OBE experience is, as well as when they will occur. show multiple accounts and testimonies, from those who claim they have experienced an OBE as well as laboratory scientific experiments of attempts to induce out of body experiences on patients. Although scientist have formed their personal opinion about Out of body experiences as well as positions derived from their own experiments, In

    • Word count: 2022
  22. Analyze the case study of Bruce Brenda Reimer and describe how it applies to Principal 1 of the biological level of analysis.

    From here on the parents started seeking out professional advice of what to do with or to the child. The case of the Reimer?s was a perfect scenario for this psychologist to test his theory of how he thought a child's gender can be controlled by its environment. Now this case study was a very unethical one, if it was not for the desperation of ?Brenda?s parents to save their child a life of misery this case study would have never happened. This case study not only disproved the theory of the John Hopkins University psychologist, but made the life of the individual miserable to the point of manic depression and soon following suicide.

    • Word count: 563
  23. Explain the effects of stereotypes on behavior

    Next is the Self-Fulfilling prophecy, associated to the «Pygmalion Effect». This explains the change in one’s behavior influenced by beliefs from important others. Furthermore, an important effect of stereotyping on the behavior of individuals is the «Confirmation Bias». It is defined as the process of noting all the examples that match our assumptions and disregarding examples refuting our beliefs. The confirmation bias is extremely impervious to modifications, since this process comes automatically to us. It makes stereotypical thinking resistant to change.

    • Word count: 691
  24. Self Estteem, PE and Aspergers.

    You can reduce the risk of committing suicide by getting regular checks for depression screenings and obesity prevention programs. Evidently, the effects of teenagers with low self-esteem are dangerous. It is important to be confident in yourself, your image, your personality, and your actions. The best way to figure out your own level of self-esteem is to take a close look at yourself in the mirror. However, not the typical mirror, but the mirror in your head. You need to examine how you feel about yourself. Self-esteem is important, especially in teenagers. In most schools, there is not enough time spent in Physical Education.

    • Word count: 943
  25. Using one or more Examples, Explain Effects of Neurotransmission on Human Behaviour

    Humans depend on neurotransmission to produce thoughts, feelings and actions, with the neurotransmitters governing the brain?s chemical functions. And when all is working as it should be, humans exhibit ?normal? behaviour, e.g: If the body has sufficient levels of the serotonin neurotransmitter, a sense of content and happiness is promoted. However, there are ways that neurotransmission can go wrong, e.g: If too much or too little of the neurotransmitter is present or if the receptors are overly or insufficiently sensitive, and this could result in abnormal behaviours.

    • Word count: 414

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