Evaluate two studies related to abnormal psychology. Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with studying, explaining and treating mental, emotional and behavioral problems. Many studies have taken place examining many different aspects of abnormal psychology. Some studies explore psychological disorders, such as depression and others try to test the validity of diagnosis and classificatory systems and to show that actually the distinction between abnormal and normal behavior is very difficult. Two of the most famous studies in abnormal psychology are the ones by Brown and Harris in 1978 and by Rosenhan in 1973. First of all, depression is one of the most common psychological disorders. People who are depressed have very low moods and low levels of self esteem. They lack motivation, and think that everything is black and that they will never be happy again. It seems that besides the biological and cognitive factors, social and cultural ones also play a role in depression. One study which explores the effects of sociocultural factors on depression is the one by Brown and Harris. Brown and Harris aimed to investigate the link between depression and both current and past life events in the lives of sufferers. Regarding the procedure of their study, they used a complex interview called the life events and difficulties scale (LEDS). A group of 539 women in
Often times, people see themselves differently from how they actually appear. According to the article “Self-Esteem and Confidence”, written by Ruth Ann Ruiz, some people have low self-esteem, and others have high self-esteem. Self-esteem is about how one person sees himself/herself, and how he/she feels about himself/herself. It is normal to feel like you are not smart enough or attractive enough. Some people may be insecure about their weight, height, whether it is above or below average. However, it may indeed be average, just viewed differently by the insecure person. How a person measures his/her appearances and worthiness is how much self-esteem a person may have. It is very important to have self-esteem during the teenage years. A study done in 2009 provides evidence that teens who are overweight and view themselves as so are more likely to commit suicide than other teens. You can reduce the risk of committing suicide by getting regular checks for depression screenings and obesity prevention programs. Evidently, the effects of teenagers with low self-esteem are dangerous. It is important to be confident in yourself, your image, your personality, and your actions. The best way to figure out your own level of self-esteem is to take a close look at yourself in the mirror. However, not the typical mirror, but the mirror in your head. You need to examine
Analyze the case study of Bruce Brenda Reimer and describe how it applies to Principal 1 of the biological level of analysis.
Eric Lopez /15/13 Morrow IB History Analyze the case study and describe how it applies to Principal 1 of the biological level of analysis. The case study of Bruce ‘Brenda’ Reimer was the study of a John Hopkins University psychologist, this psychologist had the theory that a child’s gender identity was determined by environmental variables such as the social conditions in which the child is raised. Mrs. Reimer gave birth to twin boys whom they named Bruce and Brian, but Bruce was the unlucky of the two. During a routine circumcision the doctor used an unorthodox technique and ended up destroying Bruce’s penis. From here on the parents started seeking out professional advice of what to do with or to the child. The case of the Reimer’s was a perfect scenario for this psychologist to test his theory of how he thought a child's gender can be controlled by its environment. Now this case study was a very unethical one, if it was not for the desperation of ‘Brenda’s parents to save their child a life of misery this case study would have never happened. This case study not only disproved the theory of the John Hopkins University psychologist, but made the life of the individual miserable to the point of manic depression and soon following suicide. The case study of Bruce ‘Brenda’ Reimer showed how the environment did not control the gender identity of a child.
Using Empirical Evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality. Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with studying, explaining and treating mental, emotional and behavioral problems. One of the most difficult issues in this area is the definition of abnormality. Although people make judgments about what is abnormal, these are influenced by social and cultural factors. Definitely, the distinction between what is abnormal and what is normal is very difficult, and looking at different common interpretations of abnormality accentuates this problem. Moreover, there is empirical evidence that shows that it is quite hard to confidently characterize a behavior as abnormal. An interpretation of normality that depends on literal meaning assumes there is such a thing as average behavior, or behavior that most frequently occurs in particular situations. Hence, any behavior that is not statistically frequent and deviates from the statistical average is considered as abnormal. Researchers who take a statistical approach assess how characteristics are distributed in the general population, meaning they create a normal distribution curve. This is a bell shaped curve where most people score around the middle in any given population. However, there are limitations regarding this definition of abnormality. First of all, there are problems deciding how
CULTURAL BARRIERS IN MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOTHERAPY C ultural barriers are sources of bias that can play a significant role in the effectiveness of multicultural psychotherapy. Culture-related, class-related, and language-related barriers are three major (and over-lapping) sources of potential bias identified in the seminal writings of Derztld W. Sue and David Sue. Each source of bias can produce problems that may affect the initiation, continuation, and success of psychotherapy. Among the problems that may arise are the misinterpretation of a client's cultural norms as symptoms of a disorder: misunderstanding of culture-bound syndromes and socio-political reasons for client behavior: and the misuse of interpreters. Culture comprises the values, beliefs, and norms that are shared by a group of people. such as a racial on ethnic minority. Culture influences how people think about, act on, and see the world. Traditional psychotherapy theories and the mainstream European American/Caucasian culture in the United States (referred to as "Caucasian culture") share common values and beliefs that can be barriers in multicultural psychotherapy. Examples of these commonalities are the emphasis placed on the use of standard English. direct verbal expression, and long-term goals: the distinction between physical and mental well-being: and the determination of cause—effect relationships.
Using one relevant research study, show how a principle that defines the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated.
Weak 35 – Short Answer Question Using one relevant research study, show how a principle that defines the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated. In the Biological Level of Analysis, otherwise called BLOA, there are three principles which are used to conduct experiments in this Level of Analysis. These three principles are: animals can be used to analyse human behaviour; behaviour is innate because it is genetically based; and there are biological correlations with behaviour. The first principle means that the use of animals during experiments can be used to analyse human behaviour, this can happen for several different reasons. The second principle means that everyone behaves differently because of our genetical difference, this could mean that we behave in a certain way also because of evolution. The last principle states that with a certain behaviour there is correlated a certain biological activity, for example the release of a certain hormone. With Rosenzweig study on experience and brain growth with the use of rats at least two of the principles above could be analysed, but in this case the use of animals will be the principle to be analysed with respect to this study. Rosenzweig wanted to test if a common thought of many people was true, he wanted to see if having more experiences the brain of beings would get bigger. The researcher decided to get some
Discuss how ethical considerations would be addressed before and during the study Before the study, the researchers would have to obtain informed consent from the boys they wish to have participate in the study. They would do this by outlining to the boys what the research concerns and asking their permission to take part. The boys must be given information relating to the research’s purpose, the procedures that the research will involve, any foreseeable discomforts they might be subjected to and the length of time they’re expected to participate. This would be addressed by the researchers themselves talking to the boys directly explaining the study to them, or giving them a form with all the information on it that they would sign their consent on. Also, from the very start of the study, the participants must be aware of their right to withdraw from the study. This right would be held by the participating boys till the very end of the study, with any boy being able to pull the data he provided out of the results at any time. To address this issue, the boys would ideally be reminded at the beginning and end of each research method of their right to withdraw. During the study, the researchers must ensure that the boys taking part in the research will not be caused distress. Therefore it is important that the boys must not be embarrassed, frightened, offended or harmed in
Frankie Kirkbride Discuss the effectiveness of one health promotion strategy (22 marks) Health promotion is defined by the world health organisation as “the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health". Health promotion strategies are methods put in place in order to help people control and improve their health and lifestyle. An example of a health promotion strategy is fear appeals. Fear appeals are a health promotion strategy which aims to induce fear in an individual in order to alter behaviour to avoid the threat of the danger which they are in if they do not alter their behaviour. The fear induced in individuals is supposed to be uncomfortable enough to induce a change in their behaviour. Fear appeals may be ineffective if the individual finds that the cost, benefit or difficulty in acting is greater than the risk to the individual. This is suggested by the Health Belief Model. The Health Belief Model is a psychological model, which attempts to predict and explain health behaviours by focusing on the beliefs and attitudes of individuals. According to the health belief model, fear appeals can only be effective in causing an individual to change their behaviour in order to benefit their health if the individual perceives that they are at a significant risk and if the change in their behaviour
Kevin Henson September 24, 2013 Psy 101-T Reflection paper Of Dreams and Reality: A paper on hypnosis and dream analysis There are some things in this world which are better left unsaid, some secrets that lay deep down and locked away in our unconscious, hidden desires and suppressed emotions. I guess you could say it is our instinctive selves, a version of ourselves (perhaps even our real selves) that lay caged by our everyday selves, an externality of our personality that is immersed in a society of norms and standards such that if we let this “inner” self lose, the result would be ousting, being ostracized from society. The unconscious is a world full of the clandestine, but as Freud theorizes, it is the base of the iceberg which is the foundation of our entire personality. What people see on the outside is actually largely based on our unconscious personality. It may not be exactly the same, but the fact remains, our external selves represent our internal selves to a certain extent and perhaps even in a toned down fashion. Who we really are as a person, on an instinctive level, is encapsulated by our unconscious, and to know more about this covert reality is to know more one’s real self as Roger’s would put it. Hypnosis
Discuss the effectiveness of strategies for coping with stress. Stress is the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. Stress can come from any situation or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, nervous, or anxious. The causes of stress are known as stressors an example of a stressor could be a coursework deadline. Stress management is important as studies show that prolonged stress can increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Prolonged stress can also lead to other health problems. A study by Cohen & Herbert (1996) suggests that stress causes increased susceptibility to cold, flu and other viruses. They included three types of stressors, acute laboratory stressors (such as speaking before audience), short-term naturalistic stressors (such as examinations), and long-term naturalistic stressors (such as unemployment, bereavement). Their findings suggested that stress was associated with decreased numbers of t helper cells as well as natural killer cells this leads to increased susceptibility to infections. One method of coping with stress is exercise. Exercise is any activity that requires physical effort designed to improve or sustain physical health. Exercise can help reduce stress for a person by releasing endorphins and other chemicals such as dopamine and serotonin are released. These give