Explain social identity theory with referance to relevant research studies

Explain Social learning theory with relevant research studies The social learning theory was developed to create a theory of learning, aside from imitation of behaviour learning, and to add the important cognitive processes, which humans seem to process between the environmental stimuli and the behavioural response which they make. Bandura presented the social learning theory and explain how behaviour is leaned through observation; followed by imitation. The four main factors of the social learning theory are attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. First, the social learning theory believes that a person needs to pay attention to the model and must remember the behavior that they have observed to be able to replicate the behavior. Motivation is important when taking into account factors, because if the model is rewarded or punished for the consistent behavior then the person can become motivated to replicate that action. Another factor for a person to replicate the behavior is if they can identify with the model of if they feel like they can relate to them. Rewards and punishments, decides whether an action is favorable or not this will affect the desirability of the observer to replicate that action. Whether the model is liked or disliked can also affect how the observer sees the model as something to imitate or not for example a nice model is more likely

  • Word count: 716
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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To what extent does genetic inheritance influence our behavior?

To what extent does genetic inheritance influence our behavior? Many psychologists have said that behavior was inherited from our parent, however some psychologists have argued and said that environment has a bigger effect on our behavior and that its not genetically. The first research made on to prove that genetic has a huge impact on behavior was on two identical twins who were separated when they were four weeks old and raised in different families. By the age of 39, they reunited both showing a lot of similarities in personality, interest and behavior. They both had same kind of pet (a dog), and they build same kind of unusual benches around there tree. The similarities just went on and on and it was very hard to find Differences than finding similarities. Thomas Bouchard and David Lykken work at university of Minnesota in Minneapolis is a review of research began in 1979 to examine the question if how much influence your genes have in determining your personal psychological qualities. They began in 1983 to identify, locate, and bringing together pairs of 56 monozygotic reared-apart (MZA) twins from United states and seven other countries who agreed to participate in this psychological measuring and testing. To prove this research psychologists did this study were they took a lot of monozygotic twins who were separated in early in life, and were apart for almost

  • Word count: 710
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Evaluation of drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia

* What are the advantages and disadvantages of using medication for the treatment of schizophrenia? According to the Medical Model of psychology one of the way genes may influence behavior is through biochemical agents in the brain. The view, that the brain produces its own hallucinogens is supported by some evidence, and more specifically by Smythies's findings of hallucinogen-like chemicals in the brain. Additionally, dopamine, a neurotransmitter, has received the majority of research attention. It is agreed that rather than the production of dopamine, the amount of it that is utilized plays role in schizophrenia. More dopamine is utilized either as a result of rather sensitive post-synaptic receptors for the neurotransmitter or because of an increased number of the receptor sites. This results in the fact that in people suffering from Schizophrenia the number of these receptor sites is higher and they are more densely packed. The medical model offers a variety of somatic therapies for abnormal behavior and schizophrenia. Chemotherapy1, Electroconvulsive therapy2, and psychosurgery3 are probably the basic categories of these therapies. As it has been mentioned previously, schizophrenia is caused by the presence of chemicals in the brain and by dopamine. Therefore the most effective way of curing schizophrenia would be by blocking the dopamine receptors, which is an

  • Word count: 709
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Examine how the Biological level of analysis explains the origins of attraction.

Examine how the Biological level of analysis explains the origins of attraction What is attraction? Attraction can be anything like smell, looks, hair which makes the opposite person like that person. For example if I like a girl, so the first question which anyone asks me is that what gets you attracted to her. And the first thing you say is that thing which you like the most in her. In my case I would say I like her attitude, that’s what got me attracted to her. There are three things which ,In which we are basically going to look into. First is the role of hormones in attraction. Adrenaline is one of the hormones which plays a part in attracting. When we are in present of someone who we like or have a crush on, we get this feeling in which our heart starts beating fast and we get speechless. This is where adrenaline is is released and due to which we feel such sensations in our body. Serotonin is another hormone which plays an important role in origin of attraction. To explain the role of serotonin I would like to use the study done by Marazziti . She studied 60 individuals , out of which 20 were men and women who had fallen in love in the time span of 6 months . 20 were men and women who treated from untreated obsessive compulsive disorder and last 20 were normal healthy individuals, who were not in love. Then the blood samples of 60 people were taken. The

  • Word count: 697
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Explain the effects of stereotypes on behavior

SAQ: Explain the effects of stereotypes on behavior. The process of sterotyping is a cognitive process humans undergo by categorizing others around them either for something very superficial such as looks and image or based on their social group. Once a set of characteristics is assigned as a description for a specific group, then these characteristis are most often attributed to all members belonging to that group. Stereotypes used on people can have large effects on their behavior, making them think differently because of these attributions made towards them. The effects of stereotypes on behavior are many and consist of different aspects. The first effect on behavior is prejudice, followed by discrimination, an attitude and a behavior respectively which encourage this cognitive process called stereotyping. Next is the Self-Fulfilling prophecy, associated to the «Pygmalion Effect». This explains the change in one’s behavior influenced by beliefs from important others. Furthermore, an important effect of stereotyping on the behavior of individuals is the «Confirmation Bias». It is defined as the process of noting all the examples that match our assumptions and disregarding examples refuting our beliefs. The confirmation bias is extremely impervious to modifications, since this process comes automatically to us. It makes stereotypical thinking resistant to change.

  • Word count: 691
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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The Cognitive Perspective

The Cognitive Perspective Cognitive Psychology is a psychological science which is interested in various mind and brain related subfields such as cognition, the mental processes that underlie behaviour, reasoning and decision making. During the 20th century, the cognitive perspective was created because psychologists believed that the unifying theory of the biological perspective could not fully explain behaviour. The cognitive model focuses on how people know, understands and think about the world. - Uses methodology rather than subjective basis for research - Reductionism vs Non-reductionism - Structuralism vs Functionalism - Nature vs Nurture - Objectivity vs Subjectivity Early cognitive psychology is linked with Wundt and James, whom both are credited to the early researches and founders of the cognitive perspective. They both were interested in the defining and understanding of consciousness. Although the idea of Wundt's structuralism critic against the theory of functionalism by James, they were both formed in the opposition to behaviourism, rejecting its reductionist and anti-mentalist S-R model. Cognitive psychologists also drew attention to the role of control and intention in behaviour that rejects the stimulus response view of the learning perspective. An example of this is Miller and his famous book "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some

  • Word count: 690
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis.

Jonas Prawer 17/09/2012 Ms. Singh Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis. ________________ Considerable research has been made that there is a genetic basis in human behaviour. This makes it interesting for Psychologists to investigate our brain much further. To keep it in ethical bounds most psychologists agree to follow the American Psychological Association’s code of ethics since it would not be acceptable to carry out inhumane studies. The APA’s code of ethics general principles are as follows: “Principle A: Beneficence and No maleficence, Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility, Principle C: Integrity, Principle D: Justice, [and] Principle E: Respect for People's Rights and Dignity” (American Psychological Association). Sometimes it is not possible for researchers to always follow the APA code of ethics as it may affect their results in their study. For example in Schachter and Singer (1962) injected participants with adrenalin, not in a harmful amount none of the less, fully informed consent could not be obtained since that might influence the study results (cause characteristics such as the placebo effect). They did not follow Principle C: “Integrity” and Principle:E “Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity” due to the fact that they did not

  • Word count: 682
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Social Identity Theory in Gender

Social Identity Theory in Gender An interview conducted by Advert Enticement on children demonstrated that by the age of four, children have not only developed their social identity but have also associated characteristic to a specific gender that is considered norm. When asked what their gender identity was, there were confident with their responses, socially categorizing themselves into out-groups and in-groups to whichever they belong to, by drawing a distinctive line to accentuate the difference among the females and males, thereby assuring their social identity. A Barbie and Ken doll were used as exemplars of typical gender representatives and was asked what roles were suited for which gender. Men were perceived "stronger" and "went to work" compared with women's penchant for "cleaning the house" and "taking care of the baby." There wasn't a defying line of rivalry but rather as a distinctive gender role and identity, where males and females have very individual perceptions of what each gender should possess as an intergroup quality. Children, despite their young age, are familiar with traits that tell differences between men or women and are familiar with what they believe, are appropriate behaviors for female and males to act in society whether from adult-model influences or the media. Men "need" to have muscular appeals and masculine qualities, whatever that may

  • Word count: 653
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Etiology of Eating Disorders

TV As Tiggemann & Pickering (1996, p. 202) noted upon discovering body dissatisfaction among girls and drive for thinness -> associated with exposure of TV “although it is tempting to conclude that watching a large dose of thin idealized images on television leads to dissatisfaction with one’s body, a correlation cannot determine causality or is it that ED -> TV ________________ PEERS Peer influence - a contributor to EDs (e.g., Levine et al. 1994, Shisslak et al. 1998, Stice 1998, Wertheim et al. 1997. Adolescent girls learn certain attitudes (i.e., the importance of slimness) and behaviors (i.e., dieting, purging) from their peers (Levine et al. 1994), both by example and encouragement and by way of teasing for failure to adhere to peer norms. It is difficult to weigh the relative importance of peer influence, as opposed, say, to the influence of the media or the family, which teach the same lessons; some evidence suggests that peers and family are more potent influences than the media (Stice 1998), whereas other studies find the reverse (Wertheim et al. 1997). Moreover, peer influence, like these other influences, is so broad and pervasive that it ought to cause more pathology than actually occurs. Paxton et al.’s (1999) analysis reminds us that not all peers are equally concerned about attaining a slim physique, so blanket condemnation of peer influence

  • Word count: 647
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Outline the historical or cultural factors that led to the development of the biological perspective

Outline the historical or cultural factors which led to the development of the Biological perspective. Over the last century or so, the practise of psychology began to formally include certain aspects of the scientific method into its ways of looking at human behaviour. This perspective - the Biological perspective - involves the idea that all human behaviour has a physiological basis and that the body and mind are a single entity. However, this perspective which is taken much for granted now did not arise from nowhere. The fundamental basics of this perspective can be traced back as far as the Egyptian and Greek times, although the perspective didn't advance much more until quite recently when technological advancements have allowed newer types of research to be performed and different types of information to be uncovered. The Greeks were a powerful nation, excelling in every subject from theatre to philosophy. The age of the philosophers began at about 600 BC with Thales. Philosophy was the beginning of all scientific thought and it later branched of into psychology, however, some of the basic premises of the biological perspective are visible in some Greek philosophers' ideas. Alcmaeon said in the 5th century BC that the brain was the 'seat of the soul', implying that the brain did in fact play a part in cognitive functioning, and a century later Plato agreed with this.

  • Word count: 631
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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