Physiological and Evolutionary Influences on Psychology.

The Biological Level Of Analysis stresses on three very vital principals in the basis of psychology. The first and utmost principal states that All behavior is physiological Firstly, the word physiological is an euphemism of biology. Which can also be further explained by the Oxford dictionary as the branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts as explained. We understand that all behaviors are produced and controlled by the brain. The brain however does not control all human activities on its own. Parts of the brain structure helps specific functions carry out circumscribed locations. For instance, the occipital lobe helps control ones sight but the temporal lobe controls the auditory cortex. Therefore, if one was limited by his vision, his temporal lobe would have been damaged. The discovery of this theory was founded by Paul Broca, a French anthropologist and physician who stated that when a part of the brain is disrupted, that specific function carried out by that specific part of the brain will be impaired. When he later investigated on stroke victims, he realized that his patients had problems producing speech but were very much capable in understanding them. This condition is known as Brocaʼs aphasia which is the direct and exact opposite of Wernickes aphasia which is a condition that explains the part of the brain that is

  • Word count: 625
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Explain the functions of two hormones on human behavior. Oxytocin and Adrenaline.

Using one or more examples, explain the functions of two hormones on human behavior. Hormones are chemicals within the human body that influence emotional or physical behavior. They are produced by the glands in the endocrine system. When required, they are released in the bloodstream, which then reaches cells of the required tissue and the cells respond to it. The relationship between hormones and behavior is bi-directional, meaning that hormones can affect behavior, but the way we behave can also release hormones. Hence, hormones are also often called chemical messengers. The reaction to a hormone may not always be immediate, but every hormone does affect the human body in short or long term if released. The two hormones that are discussed here are: Oxytocin and Melatonin, both of which may affect the human behavior. Oxytocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus (a region of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland). It is released either directly into the blood via the pituitary gland, or to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Oxytocin is often called the 'love hormone'. It is known to increase feelings of generosity, relaxation, and facilitates relationship formation and positive communication. It was first acknowledged in 1900s, researchers recognized that it is released during breastfeeding which triggered

  • Word count: 617
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Flashbulb memory

Evaluate how one theory of emotion may affect one cognitive process: The aim of this assay is to evaluate how flashbulb memory, a theory of emotion may affect emotion, a cognitive process. Flashbulb memory was an emotional theory suggested by Brown and Kulik (1977). Brown and Kulik stated that flashbulb memories are vivid and detailed memories of highly emotional events that appear to be recorded in the brain as though with the help from a camera's flash. Roger Brown and James Kulik (1977) conducted an experiment regarding flashbulb memory on the Kennedy assassination. Participants said their memory of this event was especially clear compared to ordinary events and it was tested that their memory was impressively accurate. Brown and Kulik therefore suggest that memories are extremely vivid and long-lasting for unexpected, emotionally laden, and consequential events such as the Kennedy assassination. However, the experiment was conducted years after the event occurred while Brown and Kulik only "assumed" that their recollections were accurate. Moreover, as the experiment was conducted years after the event, participants' memories may be affected by different media such as the television news and the news paper; these extraneous factors may have caused the memory of the event to be accurate. Other similar studies had the same problems and they are not compared to memories

  • Word count: 614
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Psychology Essay

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies Models are attempts to describe complex phenomena; they are changed and developed based on research findings. They multi-store model suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin, and the working memory model suggested by Baddeley and Hitch are two models describing the cognitive process of memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin were among the first to suggest a basic structure of memory, with their multi-store model. They model was based on two assumptions: first, that memory consists of a number of separate stories and second, that memory processes are sequential. The memory stores are seen as components that operate in conjunction with the permanent memory stove through processes such as attention, coding, and rehearsal. People need to pay attention to something in order to remember it, and they need to give the material a form which enables them to remember it. Rehearsal means keeping materials active in memory by repeating it until it can be stored. A strength of this model is that it puts the process of memory into simple, specific steps. This model sparked research based on the idea of information processing. The model contains several stores. Information from the world enters sensory memory, which relates to different senses. Then some information will continue to the short-term memory (STM),

  • Word count: 613
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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The multi-store model

The multi-store model is an oversimplified view of a very complex human memory system. Evaluate the multi-store model with reference to alternative models of memory. (8 points) Much research was devoted to identifying the properties of the sensory, short and long term memory. Cognitive psychology such as Atkinson and Shiffin began to regard them as stores or rather holding structures of memory. Theirs multi store model of memory is the first model that describes and showed how information is flowed through different parts of the sensory, short and long term memory. This model is separated into three different categories or rather sections of memory. The sensory Memory is the first level of memory. It stores brief in formations of a sensory stimulus after the stimulus itself has ended. Eg: seeing an object and then the object disappear. You'll have a vivid memory of it remaining. (Coltheart at al 1974) The second is short-Term Memory where information selected by the sensory memory that gets passed to the short term memory (STM). STM has a limited capacity and allows us to retain up to 7+/- pieces of information for long enough for us to be able to use it. Peterson (1959) tested and proved that information stored by the STM only lasts for approximately 15 to 30 seconds. Finally there's the long-Term Memory which provides a more lasting preservation ranging from a minute to a

  • Word count: 601
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact

Deprivation is defined as the absence, loss, or withholding of something needed. It is widely believed that if a child were to be deprived of an attachment with a caretaker at an early age, he/she would not be able to develop properly. Attachment is an emotional bond to another person; the theory of attachment was developed by John Bowlby who described it as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, infants need to be physically close to the caregiver to form an enduring emotional bond. Sensitive care giving and consistent responsiveness to the infant’s signals such as crying, smiling or any other physical movement, is fundamental for the infant’s development of secure attachment. Children are biologically preprogrammed to form attachments with others because they know it will most likely help them survive; it is instinctive and is activated by any conditions that may threaten their proximity with the people they bond with, insecurity and fear. In contrast, if caregivers provide insensitive and inconsistent care, babies develop alternative strategies for interaction such as tuning away from caregivers (avoidant attachment), simultaneously seeking and resisting contact (resistant attachment) or

  • Word count: 601
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Essay: Piaget's theory of studying.

Piaget's interest lay chiefly in the build-up of a basic framework of thought about knowledge. His whole psychological theory of development rested upon the principle of continuous interaction between the child and the world around him. Using the results from his studies of school children and his own children, Piaget proposed that the mind develops as a whole, but that within that whole children develop through a series of four mental stages. Each of the stages are qualitatively different from one another, and progressively more advanced. In addition, each stage produces a distinct way of thinking about oneself and the world, that is different for each stage Piaget observed among his children, that as infants they all manipulated objects as a way in which to gain knowledge about them. By touching, looking, and sucking on objects, they were able to learn about them. He called this the sensorimotor stage of intellectual development, lasting from birth to two years old, because intelligence at that time is measured largely by the infant's deliberate motor actions, and the immediate sensory feedback they receive from those actions. Piaget characterized the years from two to seven, as belonging to the period of preoperational thought. Children can now think about absent objects, and often make up new symbols or objects to represent others, such as a stick of wood being

  • Word count: 592
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Briefly describe and compare each of three Psychological Perspectives covered by the course (Learning, Biological, & Cognitive). What are their basic assumptions about the nature of behavior? How are they similar? How do they differ?

Briefly describe and compare each of three Psychological Perspectives covered by the course (Learning, Biological, & Cognitive). What are their basic assumptions about the nature of behavior? How are they similar? How do they differ? Behaviorists use the study of learning, to predict and control behavior, this is one of the three main perspective psychology is viewed in; the learning perspective. It was developed mainly in the US, by Watson, Skinner and Pavlov, who all believed that experience is what formed the knowledge of behavior. Watson believed that behavior consists of association between the stimulus and how humans react and respond to it. Pavlov, who worked with classical conditioning, studied this with a dog and training him to salivate when hearing a specific tone. Skinner's assumption was that behavior is determined by the "reward or reinforcement" (Eysenck 23). Watson thought that behavior is determined by the environmental factors rather than the inheritance. The learning perspective differs from the cognitive because it bases its assumptions purely on the observable behavior. However they are similar because both perspectives regard the concept of stimuli and response as part of their assumptions about behavior, even though behaviorist reduce it to just this concept. In contrast to the learning perspective which focused on observable behavior, the cognitive

  • Word count: 591
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Caffeine is a crystalline xanthine alkaloid compound, which basically means it is a naturally occurring element.

Caffeine is a crystalline xanthine alkaloid compound, which basically means it is a naturally occurring element. In its pure form, caffeine is a white coloured, bitter tasting substance which acts as a stimulant. It works by speeding up the central nervous system and as a result, leaving the user with and elevated mood, higher levels of concentration, and being less drowsy. It can be found in commercial form in many beverages and foods such as coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate. As well as this it can be bought over the counter in pill form. Due to its abundance it is the worlds most used drug. (2007 centre for addiction and mental health). Caffeine is also often used medically for both drowsiness and in a number of neonatal medicines. Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance, being found in over 60 plants in the world. The most common are cacao pods (most commonly used for chocolate products), kola nuts (used for the preparation of cola drinks), the ilex plant (from whose leaves the popular south American beverage yerba mate is prepared), and in guarana seeds (an ingredient in some soft drinks). Due it being readily available, it is rarely artificially manufactured. However it may be made from a complicated mix of dimethyl urea and malonic acid. The prevalence of caffeine is very different over the spectrum of beverages: * An average cup of coffee (200ml)

  • Word count: 585
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Commentary on "Blessing" by Imtiaz Dharker

"Blessing" by Imtiaz Darker The skin cracks like a pod. There never is enough water. Imagine the drip of it, the small splash, echo in a tin mug, the voice of a kindly god. Sometimes, the sudden rush of fortune. The municipal pipe bursts, silver crashes to the ground and the flow has found a roar of tongues. From the huts, a congregation : every man woman child for streets around butts in, with pots, brass, copper, aluminium, plastic buckets, frantic hands, and naked children screaming in the liquid sun, their highlights polished to perfection, flashing light, as the blessing sings over their small bones. Commentary One technique that Dharkar uses to convey the desperation and the terrible drought of the land is through different sounds, including alliteration, onomatopoeia, and sibilance. Dharkar uses onomatopoeia, which is a word that imitates a sound, throughout the entire poem. At the beginning the word "cracks" (1) represents the dry and withered earth, which is then replaced by the words "drip" and "splash" (3), which are also examples of onomatopoeia, highlighting the need, the desire for water. These words emphasize the desperate need for liquid, that only a tiny amount is cherished and desired. Therefore "drip" illustrates only a tiny amount. This is exemplified by the fact that when reading the poem these three words are sounds, made

  • Word count: 581
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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