The Biological Perspective believes that correlates exist between physiological and psychological behavior. Use one psychological study to explain this statement.

SAQ 1 The Biological Perspective believes that correlates exist between physiological and psychological behavior. Use one psychological study to explain this statement. The biological perspective focuses on explaining behavior through physiological but also psychological factors. To understand behavior the relationship between the physical and the mental activity must be looked at. Aggression is an example of a behavior that can be explained through both physiological and psychological factors. Aggression is part of the natural instincts that almost every species of animals possess and it comes in the form of threat behaviors or attacks. Aggressive behaviors are crucial to the survival of an animal, because it is used in predation, defense of territory, offspring, food, or related to reproduction. Especially threatening or submissive gestures are important because it warns another animal that it will defend itself or flee, which would stop the fight. Both behaviors are there for communication before the actual attack. Aggression within predation is when an animal of one species, acting as predator, hunts and attacks an animal of another, the prey which serves as food. Aggressive behaviors within the same species cause arousal and excitement, because the sympathetic nervous system goes into overdrive. Aggressive behaviors are different and specific for each species and

  • Word count: 577
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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PET and MRI Scans of the brain

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) . Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans detect special radioactively labelled tracers which are injected into a patient's body before the imaging procedure starts. 2. PET scans can be used to accurately monitor brain activity while a patient's memory and cognition are being tested. 3. PET scans can determine brain activity and function by measuring differences in blood flow and the usage of glucose (sugar), both of which increase when an area of the brain is active. 4. PET scans provide information about brain function and activity as opposed to brain structure, and are more typically used in research. 5. The scans are made by injecting the patient with a form of sugar that has been altered to carry a weak, short-lived radioactive element. The sugar hits the bloodstream and flows to the brain, which needs huge amounts of energy to keep all its nerve cells running. 6. The most active areas of the brain need the most sugar -- while damaged and less active areas need much less. By detecting the weak radiation signal from the sugar molecules as they travel throughout the brain, PET scanners can make a picture of brain cell activity. The resulting scans show the level of activity using a scale of colours; red and orange for high activity, and blue and purple for low. 7. Researchers from the New York University School of Medicine have

  • Word count: 575
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Outline principles that define cognitive level of analysis

Outline principles that define cognitive level of analysis (8mks) Cognitive psychology deals with how the mind functions and responds to the things that we see around us. It involves mental tasks, perception, thinking and problem solving. There are three main principles that highlight the cognitive level of analysis. The first principle that defines this level of analysis is that human beings are information processors and that mental processes guide behaviour. This simple means that there is a relationship between how people think and behave. Information is transformed and organized according to the way people perceive and interpret what is going on around them. This principle was demonstrated in Darley and Gross’s experiment. In this experiment, they showed to their participants, videos of a girl playing in a poor environment then in a wealthy environment. The participants were then asked to judge the future of the girl based on how she would perform on an intelligence test. All the participants said that the “poor” girl would do worse than the “wealthy girl”. This shows that the participants already had a schema of how the environment would affect the girl’s performance on the test. This happens because human beings take in and actively process information based on a few vague details that they are given to form a conclusion that may not be correct. The

  • Word count: 571
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Social identity theory revision notes

. Evaluate social identity theory Social identity theory: assumption that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem based on personal identity or with various social identities . By Henri Tajfel 2. People can boost self esteem though personal achievement / affiliation with successful groups . Shows the importance of social belonging 2. Social VS Personal Self adapted in different situations 3. SIT based on cognitive process of social categorization . Explains social phenomena such as in-group favoritism, stereotyping, and conformity to in-group norms 2. May produce competitive intergroup behavior 3. People who belong to a group (even when assigned) would automatically think of that group as their "in-group", and others as "out-group" . When people are casually assigned to a group, they have similar attitudes and behavior, and a bond is often formed amongst the members . People exhibit in-group favoritism, and a pattern of discrimination with the out-group 2. Individual's self esteem is maintained by social comparison: benefits of belonging to the in-group . Outcome of comparison is important, as it influence self esteem Cialdini et al 1976: . Aim: find out whether people really favor their own in groups more 2. Method: see the response of fans after a successful football match 3. Result: fans were likely to be seen

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  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Analyze the case study of Bruce Brenda Reimer and describe how it applies to Principal 1 of the biological level of analysis.

Eric Lopez /15/13 Morrow IB History Analyze the case study and describe how it applies to Principal 1 of the biological level of analysis. The case study of Bruce ‘Brenda’ Reimer was the study of a John Hopkins University psychologist, this psychologist had the theory that a child’s gender identity was determined by environmental variables such as the social conditions in which the child is raised. Mrs. Reimer gave birth to twin boys whom they named Bruce and Brian, but Bruce was the unlucky of the two. During a routine circumcision the doctor used an unorthodox technique and ended up destroying Bruce’s penis. From here on the parents started seeking out professional advice of what to do with or to the child. The case of the Reimer’s was a perfect scenario for this psychologist to test his theory of how he thought a child's gender can be controlled by its environment. Now this case study was a very unethical one, if it was not for the desperation of ‘Brenda’s parents to save their child a life of misery this case study would have never happened. This case study not only disproved the theory of the John Hopkins University psychologist, but made the life of the individual miserable to the point of manic depression and soon following suicide. The case study of Bruce ‘Brenda’ Reimer showed how the environment did not control the gender identity of a child.

  • Word count: 563
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Adrenaline, Oxytocin or Melatonin, which is the most powerful?

Adrenaline, Oxytocin or Melatonin- which is the most powerful? The most powerful hormone in my opinion is adrenaline. Epinephrine, better known as adrenaline, is a hormone secreted from the adrenal glands, which is located on the kidneys. The adrenal glands are one of the body's endocrine glands or one of the glands producing substances that are distributed throughout the body by the bloodstream. Adrenaline is produced in small amounts by the adrenal glands continuously, but when the body is but through excitement, danger or emotional stress, the brain sends a message to the glands which in turn increase the level of adrenaline. Adrenaline increases the fabrication of energy in the body and switches all the sensory processes up to full alert, shuts down less important processes like digestion, constricts small blood vessels, and releases sugar stored in the liver. It also leads to increase in blood sugar levels, higher heart rate and increase in blood pressure. Why is adrenaline stronger than oxytocin and melatonin? Well, while melatonin regulates the body’s circadian rhythm (the body’s internal 24 hour clock) and oxytocin triggers contractions and nipple stimulation, adrenaline essentially turns your body into a “war machine.” Basically, it drives the body to the highest levels of energy and concentration in order to prepare it to fight for the single most

  • Word count: 555
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Anger management as a method of treating offenders

Anger management as a method of treating offenders Anger management is a cognitive-behavioural technique based on a model by Ray Novaco (1975). Novaco describes anger as a strong emotion with physiological behavioural and cognitive elements. Anger management teaches relaxation techniques to deal with physiological response to anger e.g. increased heart rate) cognitive restructuring to retain thought patterns and time out or assertiveness training to deal with the behavioural element of anger. There are three steps: . Cognitive preparation Offenders identify situations that provoke anger so they can recognise when an aggressive outburst is likely to occur. Thought pattern are challenged, for example, if they become angry when lauged at, they might work through alternative conclusions such as people are laughing at the behaviour not them. They also consider the negative consequence of their anger on others. 2. Skill acquisition New coping skills are learnt to help deal with anger-provoking situations, such as “stop and think” or counting. Relaxation techniques are also learnt to help calm the physiological response. Assertiveness training can help deal with the issue constructively rather than violently. 3. Application practise Offenders role-play a variety of scenarios to practise new skills to control anger. These are conducted in controlled environments so that

  • Word count: 555
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Why Literature?

Why Literature? Literature is the expression of a language through writing. Generally, "literature" is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, however the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction. Some literature is written for enjoyment, while some is written as information. The difficulty therefore "is not to write, but to write what you mean; not to affect your reader, but to affect him precisely as you wish." (Robert Louis Stevenson). This challenge is sometimes mastered very well, and it is exactly that literature that then is considered powerful enough to convey phenomenal messages. Literature could not exist without language, and the skill to be able to use a language as it is used in literature, depends on a very basic psychological fact. Humans use language to convey messages and to communicate both orally and through writing. However the most important property of language is that it is needed for humans to think and use their intelligence. Even in the mind, every human must think in some form of language. This is why well written literature is as powerful, because it enters exactly this psychological balance and sparks the imagination and the understanding of whatever the message may be. Psychologists at the Stanford University

  • Word count: 546
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Paper 3- Qualitative V. Quantitative research methods

IB Question: Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data. Throughout the years, there have been many debates as to whether or not experiments should use qualitative as opposed to quantitative research methods. In order for one to decide their viewpoint on the matter, one must first know the clear differences of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research explores attitudes, behavior, and experiences by asking the participant open-ended questions which require an in-depth, opinionated answers. On the other hand, quantitative research generates statistics through the use of predetermined questions with fixed answer choices, such as yes/no questionnaires. Each type of method has its own significant use and whether or not one is more appropriate than the other has much to do with the type of experiment being conducted. Key differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods include their analytical objectives, the questions they employ, the data instruments they use, the forms of data they produce, and most importantly, the degree of flexibility within the study design. The objective of quantitative research methods are primarily to predict casual relationships, describe characteristics of a population, and to quantify variation, whereas the purpose of qualitative research methods include to describe and explain relationships, to

  • Word count: 546
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Discuss how ethical considerations would be addressed before and during a psychological study

Discuss how ethical considerations would be addressed before and during the study Before the study, the researchers would have to obtain informed consent from the boys they wish to have participate in the study. They would do this by outlining to the boys what the research concerns and asking their permission to take part. The boys must be given information relating to the research’s purpose, the procedures that the research will involve, any foreseeable discomforts they might be subjected to and the length of time they’re expected to participate. This would be addressed by the researchers themselves talking to the boys directly explaining the study to them, or giving them a form with all the information on it that they would sign their consent on. Also, from the very start of the study, the participants must be aware of their right to withdraw from the study. This right would be held by the participating boys till the very end of the study, with any boy being able to pull the data he provided out of the results at any time. To address this issue, the boys would ideally be reminded at the beginning and end of each research method of their right to withdraw. During the study, the researchers must ensure that the boys taking part in the research will not be caused distress. Therefore it is important that the boys must not be embarrassed, frightened, offended or harmed in

  • Word count: 545
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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