Planning a Psychology Experiment on Observation.

Method - Design The independent variable will be the absence or presence of the gorilla, one group will be told what they have to find and the other will simply be shown the video and later asked what they spotted in the video. The dependent variable will be how many participants notice the change in color of the curtains in the video and how many participants spot the gorilla in the video. During the experiment, I will ensure I do not cause any mental or physical harm to the participants, the participants will be provided with a consent form prior to the experiment I will decide on a topic and guiding question, which will reflect in my aim and hypothesis. Then I will decide how I will conduct the experiment. The experiment will split the participants into two groups, as there will be an experimental group and a controlled group. There will be 10 participants each in both the groups; the participants will be obtained using selective sampling from a selective group of members. I will then find a video suitable for the experiment. I found a video on YouTube posted by the original researchers (Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris). This video will replicate the research undertaken by the two psychologists in 1997. It would be important for the participants to be over 16 years of age as they would require an average level of English to understand the research question

  • Word count: 537
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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PLAN - Discuss how researchers analyse data obtained in observational research

Discuss how researchers analyse data obtained in observational research * Qualitative Researches are concerned with the process as well as the end product of the research. * They take an inductive approach to data analysis. * Analysis is based on researcher's field notes, but these are often compared to data from other sources (interview transcripts, narratives, pictures). * Common in participant observation to use a variety of sources. One way to analyse the data from observations is grounded theory analysis. The core of grounded theory analysis is based on three related processes: * Description * Coding and connecting themes * Produce an account Description Provide a complete description of the phenomenon of interest. Description includes; the context of the action, the intentions of the actor, and the process in which the action is embedded. A 'thick' description provides rich data. Coding and Connection Themes Coding of the data = organizing into categories. The purpose is to provide tools for analysis Without categorization, it isn't possible to know what is analysed and know possible to compare the data. The Classification Process * Consists of reading, and rereading the field notes in an interactive way. * The researches must be able to identify bits of data and create categories , by asking questions like; who? What? When? Where? Why? *

  • Word count: 527
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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To what extent do biological and cognitive factors interact with emotion

Despite the differences between biological and cognitive factors, there have been attempts to combine the two perspectives. One such attempt is the two-factor theory of emotion. The two-factor theory of emotion suggested that emotion arises body arousal and appraisal. Unfortunately, there is little evidence for this theory. There is, however, evidence for a more limited effect of arousal on appraisal. For example, Zillman and Bryant found that participants who had just exercised responded more aggressively to provocation than participants who had not. Another study by Dutton and Aaron showed that male participants were observed to be more attracted to female interviewers when approached on a narrow footbridge, a high anxiety situation. These two studies suggest that arousal may have an affect on emotion, but they do not support the two-factor theory’s claim that emotion is dependent on arousal. It can therefore be concluded that while arousal and appraisal interact with one another, they do not require each other in order for emotion to be experienced. After all, it is possible to experience emotion with an injured spinal cord or brain, just as it is possible to become angry or sexually aroused without fear or stress inducing stimuli. Based on the evidence, biological and cognitive factors can be assumed to interact with emotion. It can be assumed that cognitive factors

  • Word count: 520
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Discuss How and Why Particular Research Methods Are Used at the Cognitive Level of Analysis.

Daniel Koopowitz 11C Psychology 03/10/12 Discuss How and Why Particular Research Methods Are Used at the Cognitive Level of Analysis. Cognitive Psychology is an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes. Cognitive psychology is also one of the more recent additions to psychological research. The Cognitive Level of Analysis or CLOA is the Level of analysis that deals with the inner workings of the human brain. This mini essay reviews how and why particular research methods are used at the Cognitive Level of Analysis. As you know, one of the most scientific ways to study mental processes is through lab experiments. This is because the high levels of control allow a researcher to isolate a particular component of the cognitive process for study. In other words to test the IV and its effects on the DV. However the high levels of control bring artificiality into play. This can be seen as a weakness of lab experiments. It is vital to ensure that a lab experiment is ecologically valid. Correlation studies are important at the Cognitive Level of Analysis because it is not always ethical, easy or convenient to create situations or tests in a lab setting. Correlation studies looks at the relationship between the two variables rather than cause and effect. Naturalistic observation is key at the Cognitive Level of Analysis because in an

  • Word count: 507
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Using one relevant research study, show how a principle that defines the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated.

Weak 35 – Short Answer Question Using one relevant research study, show how a principle that defines the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated. In the Biological Level of Analysis, otherwise called BLOA, there are three principles which are used to conduct experiments in this Level of Analysis. These three principles are: animals can be used to analyse human behaviour; behaviour is innate because it is genetically based; and there are biological correlations with behaviour. The first principle means that the use of animals during experiments can be used to analyse human behaviour, this can happen for several different reasons. The second principle means that everyone behaves differently because of our genetical difference, this could mean that we behave in a certain way also because of evolution. The last principle states that with a certain behaviour there is correlated a certain biological activity, for example the release of a certain hormone. With Rosenzweig study on experience and brain growth with the use of rats at least two of the principles above could be analysed, but in this case the use of animals will be the principle to be analysed with respect to this study. Rosenzweig wanted to test if a common thought of many people was true, he wanted to see if having more experiences the brain of beings would get bigger. The researcher decided to get some

  • Word count: 503
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Laughter the therapeutic qualities

Laughter, as it is said, is the best medicine. Comedy is the cure for many ailments. Comedy truly does make the world go around. Who does not enjoy the therapeutic qualities of laughter? There is something to be said for people and things that can make us laugh. Comedy takes situations that we deal with on a daily basis and turns around and makes them funny. What is considered funny does of course vary according to trends, with technology becoming increasingly important. It is little wonder that such developments have become the source of much amusement. Classic comedy, however, such as Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marx remain both funny and popular in modern society. Comedy comes in many shapes and sizes from silent to musical and from slapstick to stylish. Although TV is a popular medium for comedy, comedy clubs have also captured the imagination of audiences, worldwide. The career of many a budding comedian has taken off thanks to the opportunity to perform on the comedy club circuit. Big names such as Mike Myers, Jim Carrey and Eddie Murphy of Saturday Night Live fame, all started out in comedy clubs. Stand-up comedians and stars of one person shows like Ellen Degeneres also appeal to contemporary audiences. Human weakness is the basis of most types of humor. A decent comedian will enable us to laugh at ourselves and our common experiences through cracking jokes about

  • Word count: 502
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Attention Depisite Disorder

Attention Depisite Disorder Ritalin and other stimulants are commonly used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in elementary-age children because they reduce disruptive and allow children to focus. A new study has found that Ritalin can also improve the academic performance and behavior of teenagers. Steven W. Evans, Ph.D., and colleagues William E. Pelham Jr., Ph.D., and Bradley H. Smith, Ph.D., have found that the use of Ritalin combined with behavior modification, can improve teenagers diagnosed with ADHD performance in note taking, assignments and test scores, without significant side effects. It was found that while the teens were taking the medication, they were more likely to get their schoolwork finished more accurately than when taking a placebo. In fact, the research showed that scores improved an average of seventeen percent, or two or three letter grades. The subjects of the study were forty-five teens that were diagnosed with ADHD who had enrolled in a University of Pittsburgh summer treatment program. Because ADHD affects more boys than girls, most of the participants were male. During the eight week study, the teens were given either Ritalin or a placebo three times per day with each day's third dose being half the size of the first and second. The students received each dose one day each week in a random order. This allowed

  • Word count: 500
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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How Biological Factors Affect Cognitive Processes

How Biological Factors Affect Cognitive Processes Biological Factors: A factor is a substance necessary to produce a result or activity in the body. The term is used when the chemical nature of the substance is unknown. Biological factors are the substances that bring results in biological systems. For example in the human system, red blood cells are biological factors. Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicationg Cognitive Processes: Perception, thinking, problem solving, memory, language attention ________________ Explain how biological factors (these studies) affect Cognition (memory) Alzheimer’s Disease: A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by the gradual detioration of memory, reasoning, language and physical functioning BIOLOGICAL CAUSES COGNITIVE IMPACT 1. Damage to the neurotransmitter acetylcoline 2. Tangles are twisted fibers of the protein Tau that build up inside the cells 3. Plaques are deposits of a protein fragment called beta amyloid that build up in the spaces between the neurons 1. Plaques and tangles seem to begin in areas important to memory- hippocampus 2. Further damages spread to regions for thinking and planning: the frontal lobe 3. Speaking and understanding of language areas also see damage: Wernickes are and Broca’s area. Martinez and Kesner Study:

  • Word count: 495
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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Psychology Essay

Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process The cognitive level of analysis deals with the structure and functions of the mind. Some researchers believe that biological factors may affect cognitive processes. Kandel, one researcher, shows that learning means formation of a memory-that is, growing new connections or strengthening existing connections between neurons to form neural networks. Over time, researchers have used animals to study how areas of the brain are related to memory. Usually, animals learn to execute a particular task-for example, running through a maze-and, ultimately, a memory is formed. Researchers then cut away some parts of brain tissue in order to find out what areas of the brain are involved in such a task. Next, the animal has to run through the maze again. This procedure, which is called lesioning, is a number of times until the animal can no longer perform the task. Evidently, scientists cannot do this to humans so they turn to study people who already have existing brain damage. Several case studies show that long-term memory (LTM) consists of several stores. Damage to different parts of the brain affects factual knowledge, for example, how to work a laundry machine. We can conclude that brain damage can affect one type of memory but leaves others intact. Scientists map the structures of long-term memory in order to explain

  • Word count: 495
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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investigating stress and illness

Investigating Stress and Illness Lucas Gröger IB1 25-10-09 Psychology HL Being stressed is sometimes a good thing but it often has negative effects on the person that is under stress. For example if you are stressed you have an increased chance of becoming sick. In a study 394 healthy participants completed a questionnaire designed to measure their stress level. They listed the stressful events they had experienced over the last year, assessed their ability to cope with these events and noted how often they felt negative emotions such as hostility, anger and depression. On the basis of this information, each participant was given a 'psychological stress index ' from 3 (lowest stress) to 12 (highest stress). The participants were then given nasal drops which exposed them to one of five common cold viruses. Most showed signs of infection, but only around a third were judged by a doctor to have an actual cold. Looking at those results there was a great indication that the level of stress had to do something with the participants becoming sick AIM: The aim of this investigation is to prove that there is a connection between stress and illness. Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that if a person scores high on the stress survey they should score high on the illness survey as well. Therefore all the results will be in a steady pattern. Results of the surveys in tables and graphs:

  • Word count: 487
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Psychology
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