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International Baccalaureate: Theory of Knowledge
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No one else in the world had even started thinking on those lines, thus, all accepted this fact when they saw that it was a justified true belief. Thus, we see that expert opinions play a very important role in formulating the knowledge we know. But, at the same time, experts are fallible, because, almost 30 years later, it was discovered that humans have only 23 pairs of chromosomes and that Painter had simply made a counting mistake. Thus, though we rely on experts for our knowledge, they can be wrong.
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Socratic dialogueAre reason and logic purely objective and universal, or do they vary across cultures?
But that is not our reality. We have social problems: r****m, poverty, and powerful weapons that could have easily destroyed our planet. Frank. We don't have to believe in the same thing but we can think in the same way. Do you think that we should care for our environment? Susan. Yes, of course. Frank. Do you recycle? Susan. No, that is not my job, the cleaners will sort out the trash at school and at home. Frank. So, in recent years, environmental issues have become a growing concern in the world.
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What a beautiful world! Jubilee Kingdom got its name because the people were always happy and enjoyed their gorgeous environment. The colorful surroundings and the pleasant smell of nature with sweet fruits bought joy to everybody. It was at the very moment that King Davis closed his eyes to enjoy the rhythm of the carriage, that something strange suddenly happened. The melody of birds stopped, the sky turned black and the wind became wild. "What, what is going on!??" cried the King as he opened his eyes to check on his family.
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Capital Punishment and why it should be abolished, with particular regard to the Human Declaration of Rights
Countries such as the USA are also abolishing the death penalty. As of now, only 38 of the 50 states have abolished it. I would say that capital punishment has its disadvantages and advantages but overall, I would support the abolishment of capital punishment. This act of murder has been popular along the years but must be stopped now. According to me, execution of a person is just like legal murder and devalues the respect we place on human life.
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However, we must realize that those experts are humans after all, thus they -like all of us- are subject to commit mistakes and errors, and hence I believe that opinions of experts -in most cases- are useless. We must also consider the process of making an expert, an expert is someone who has gained his expertise from another authority (weather it was another expert, a book, a professor etc.) this process will keep tracing back to someone who has actually tested the fact and received sufficient empirical evidence that the statement (whatever it was)
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To what extent can the truth of a knowledge claim be fully interpreted in the hands of language? History consists of many factors that cause the evolution and the invention of many words; some are formed exclusively in a certain language under specific environment and culture, where other languages might be hard to interpret. As different cultures develop through time, languages are formed and began to vary themselves to fit the growth of their culture. Take Italian as an example, there is a word to describe the mark being left on a table by a moist glass: culacino, while the
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How Inner nature and survival of the fittest relate to the relationship of mind and body in the case of Floyd Mayweathers boxing match against Victor Ortiz.
Many people believe that Mayweather won in an unfair manner by throwing a knockout punch at a defenseless Ortiz in the fourth round of the fight, but was it truly unfair, what were the factors that played a role in Mayweather's actions, such as the philosophical concepts of the relationship between mind and body, and inner nature such as survival of the fittest. Floyd Mayweather is considered by many to be one of the greatest boxers if not the greatest boxer in the world today and perhaps of all time.
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The vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge; it shapes what we can know. Evaluate this claim with reference to different areas of knowledge.
We are able to not only conceive thought, but build upon it, ultimately creating a whole new concept overall. When you peel back this concept, exposing down to the core, you will discover two hemispheres upon which it is built: knowledge and vocabulary. Now I challenge you to participate in this exercise. Simply think of one thing, whether it be an object, a person, an idea. Now think of all the words in your bank of vocabulary to describe it. You probably could not rein in the overwhelming number of words that have come to mind. You are now probably thinking of all the words that exist but of which you have not thought.
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To what extent is it possible to overcome the ambiguity and vagueness in language? In what contexts might ambiguity either contribute to or impede knowledge or contribute to it? Does the balance between precision and ambiguity alter from one discipline to
We use language in ways other than it is intended to, which causes problems. There are five problematic uses of language which makes languages very unclear and confusing: Vagueness, as I have mentioned above, it means that the words are not being expresses clearly; ambiguity, as I have mentioned above, it means that the words are very vague and unclear; secondary meanings, which are words that have two different meanings. For example: the word 'right' means right side like left side but it also another word for correct, metaphor, is a figure of speech.
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For example, one day I saw my friend shaking her leg when she was sitting down, this made me realise that she was nervous about something. She didn't tell me she was nervous, but her body language made me realise that. All those are forms of communication because using those types of languages messages can surely be successfully sent and received by individuals. Furthermore, areas of knowledge are the areas in which individuals can gain knowledge. Types of areas of knowledge are ethics, history, mathematics, natural science, human science and the arts.
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In the natural sciences, the only theories that could be unconvincing are the theories that deal with subject matters that are small or matters that could clash with religion and ethics. In chemistry, the theories are less convincing because the scales of studies of these subject matters are so small. For example, we accept the Atomic Theory that states that matter is composed in discrete units called atoms, but no one knows for sure the existence of an atom or an electron.
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By comparing faith to reason, we are able to determine that by using faith as a basis for knowledge, we, as a society, are able to decide or determine what we believe in the world without having a truly sufficient amount of evidence to provide what the scientific community considers to be definite proof. Every single area of knowledge and way of knowing eventually leads itself back to faith. From mathematics, to arts, to the sciences, and everything in between, faith provides the true basis for belief and understanding of all knowledge.
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While this frame of thought is quite popular, the contrast with the opinion set down by the topic is stark. The topic, by itself is similar to archaic Buddhist principles that are tied to the idea that there are indeed no absolute distinctions between the true and the false. The topic is also lacking in the sense that it raises a lot of problems because of the wholesale approach in the description of these 'truths' as suggested by it. It proposes a valid proposition but fails to elaborate on it extensively.
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Doubt is the key to knowledge (Persian Proverb). To what extent is this true in two areas of knowledge?
improving their doubts, not like in old centuries where the society was controlled by the rulers, like what happened in Europe the Pope of the Vatican in Rome did not let the parish learn and explore things to gain more knowledge which finally lead to a lack and suppression of thoughts and education in the society. Doubt can be used to improve the basics of knowledge, to modify and add to the knowledge infrastructure in different areas of knowledge, because doubt increases the rates of our curiosity to know if it is true or false or if it can help
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TOK IB IA presentation. On what basis do spiritual beliefs rest? I have read about famous examples of scientific proofs of re-incarnation, the most famous being that by Dr. Ian Stevenson.
He even matches birthmarks and birth defects to wounds and scars on the deceased, verified by medical records. His strict methods systematically rule out all possible "normal" explanations for the child's memories. Boy 1: I am still skeptical about that. I think it is just man's desire for immortality that gets expressed, rather strongly, as this spiritual belief of 'Re-incarnation'. Boy 2: Before, you go too far in assuming that as a possibility, please look at a video featuring Dr.
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Problems With Interpreting Meaning. What do the problems with interpreting meaning discussed by the keys and the textbook tell us about the nature of language, its capabilities and its limits? Be sure to consider the four theories of meaning (van de Lage
However, language is susceptible to misinterpretation and misunderstanding. The four theories of meaning and the five categories of problematic meaning are of aid in the intricate task of defining and acknowledging the concept of language. The four theories of meaning are the definition theory, denotation theory, image theory and meaning as know-how theory; they each find meaning in dictionaries, the world and the mind while the last one further develops the three preceding theories, finding meaning in the social practices embodied in language ( 1). In the area of knowledge of mathematics, the definition theory is pertinent and effective because this theory is only valid with a subset
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Truth is that to which the community ultimately settles down (Charles Peirce). Analyse and evaluate this claim.
The smaller group of all scientists is often referred to as the scientific community. Even a ToK class is a kind of community. Depending on what truth we seek, we may tie it to the community of the whole world or to a smaller community that reflects a focus on a particular area of knowledge. For example, although a Catholic may tie his or her theological knowledge to the 15 leadings of the Catholic community, he or she probably does not tie them to the theological knowledge of the world community, or even of the western world.
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TOK essay: The vocabulary we have does more than communicate our language, it shapes what we can know.
English language has many words originating for instance, from Latin, like the words mass and communion have derived from the Latin words missa and communio. There are also many words in scientific language that originate from Latin, like sternum and appendix. Also words relating to classical music have been borrowed from Italian language words, such as concerto, allegro, tempo and soprano. Hence there can be many words that have meaning for things that some English speakers may not even know about.
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How can different ways of knowing help us to distinguish between something that is true and something that is believed to be true?
1 In order to discover or experience the objective truth we must use our senses, emotions and language. It is important to mention that it is really difficult to express the exact meaning of the truth, by looking at the "Man is the measure" which discuss both the Correspondence and Coherence Theories of Truth. 2 According to Plato's definition, Knowledge is justified as being a true belief. The true knowledge should be based on facts (absolutely certain) and not on beliefs (uncertain)
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Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of using faith as a basis of knowledge in religion and one other area of knowledge from the TOK diagram.
The knowledge of faith strengthens the worshiper by accommodating them with a way to connect to their god and to practice their religion fully. Similarly, faith strengthens one's knowledge in ethical practices (moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior) by providing examples on how to act. Each religion possesses its own ethical background, but faith is the only aspect of the religion that is able to set a path of just behavior. For example, having faith in Christianity's ten commandments permits one to become fully knowledgeable in their religion's moral behavior.
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However, I believe that emotions can be unreliable and tend to make even an explanation to a simple event heavily subjective. If this holds true, then emotions can make it difficult for a person to discard intuitive explanations when they truly should. Are intuitions deceitful then? If they are, how can we ever determine which ones to act upon, or can an intuitive explanation seem to be better than it truly is? Of course it can, especially when interacting with others.
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Knowledge is generated through the interaction of critical and creative thinking. Evaluate this statement in two areas of knowledge.
What makes this show a good example to distinguish critical from creative thinking is the differences between the two main characters on how they approach solving the murder case. The detective analyzes the case according to the evidence obtained in order to create a solid case against the suspect. The suspect cannot be tried for just speculation. On the other hand, the writer is also essential to solving cases because he generates different perspectives and finds relationships between seemingly unrelated things, which, if his ideas are reasonable, can also help solve the case because his extensive knowledge of looking into a killer's mind.
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If someone is addicted to drugs or alcohol was it really their fault? Is it predetermined that someone will be addicted to drugs? If it were discovered that destiny was real what would people do? Would they just decide to stop trying and to stop Is it easier for people to blame everything wrong on destiny and god? In the world there are people that try to manipulate things to their advantage. Are the manipulators we encounter really manipulating or are they being manipulated themselves? Have we ever made a real choice? What if destiny is real?
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Aristotle raises the idea of catharsis, which is the idea that we (us personally and the artist) use art as a way to experience emotion in a 'safe' way. As an example, when I watch a sad film the sadness I feel is 'purged' from my system without me having to feel sadness in the real world. Thus, even a negative emotion can have a positive effect on the audience. On the other hand, Tolstoy and Collingwood have a different point of view and state that we appreciate the skill of the artist in conveying the emotion in the piece.
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For example, the television advertisement of the drink "Actimel", the supposed benefits range go from reducing the incidence of diarrhea and rhinitis reduction for young children, to improvement of the immune function in adults and seniors and reduction of duration of winter infections for elderly. But anyone could say that... the difference with this product is that there is, proof, scientific research and evidence. In the TV advertisement a guy states that 9 out 10 subjects feel the difference when consuming, but, how can we believe this statement without any proof, just because the scientist on TV says so?
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