In what ways may disagreement aid the pursuit of knowledge in the natural and human sciences?

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        A disagreement occurs when a different opinion is expressed (Oxford Dictionary). To a certain degree, it is assumed by the question that disagreement aids in the pursuit of knowledge.  There are cases that will be evoked that indicate otherwise.  Isaac Newton stated that “if [he] has seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.” (Hawking, 9)  He is stating that those who develop future pursuits of intellect in the form of knowledge are those who best understand and develop further works created by major thinkers of prior times.  Newton believes that the in-depth study of others’ work, and at times disagreeing with some of it can push us forward in our pursuit of knowledge. The areas of knowledge being dealt with are pre-determined by the topic and are: human science and natural science. Natural science is a branch of science which deals with the physical world (Merriam-Webster).  This includes physics, chemistry, and biology among others, including geology.  This also includes human physiology.  Anything in medicine discussing how our bodies work falls into the natural sciences.  When we take that a step further to discuss behavior, this is what constitutes human science.  This type of science is a field that deals with the institutions as well as the functioning of human society.  This also encompasses the interpersonal relationships of individuals as members of society.  An example of this is economics, the study of how individuals as well as groups choose to employ productive resources (Merriam-Webster). There are different methods to acquire knowledge in the two areas being discussed.  Inquiries in the human sciences are different in kind from the inquiries of the natural sciences.  The process in the natural sciences is far more concrete.

        Human sciences are not always as precise as natural sciences.  This is because human behavior demands a method extremely sensitive to elements of whim or personal preference.  Humans make irrational decisions.  Those seeking knowledge or looking to make generalizations cannot account for all of these.  The central disagreement amongst economists is a matter of economic philosophy. The two key schools of thought in economics are:  and free-market economics, represented by Hayek.

        Keynesian economics was presented in an extensive economic theory in the 1930s.  His belief was that a prosperous economy could be created by a combination of the private sector (investors unrelated to the government) and the aid of the government, through monetary and fiscal policies.  These include policies that actively control money supply and interest rates as the economy changes, in an effort to keep employment high. (.)

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        By contrast, the  economists advocate that the government take a "hands off" policy.  They believe that governments should allow the market to run freely, through the private sector.  This view holds that there should be absolutely no intervention by the government, as this is held to be interference with the ability of a free economy to normalize itself. This appears to be in disagreement with the aforementioned theory that government involvement in the economy can be beneficial. (The Keynes-Hayek Showdown)

        These two economic philosophies each have merits as well as flaws. However, these strongly supported and clashing views are a central ...

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