#### Difference of Truth and knowldge

What are the differences between "I am certain" and "it is certain", and is passionate conviction ever sufficient for justifying knowledge???Two men are standing in the street, one looks at the other and says, "If I flip this coin an equal number of times, I am certain I will always achieve identical numbers of both heads and tails." He proceeds with flipping the coin ten times, only achieving two heads and eight tails. This man was certain he would achieve equal numbers of heads and tails, as the theoretical probability of the problem was fifty-fifty. On the other hand, it is certain that the results are random, as the coin could land on either side an infinite amount of times. Here we see one of many major differences between the phrase "I am certain" and "it is certain". ?"It is certain" relates to facts, research, scientific experiment and induction, empirical evidence, mathematics and proof. "It is certain" is usually a statement of truth and authority. It is an idea or statement that is backed up by facts, such as taking two apples and placing them in a bag with five more, and deducing the statement "It is certain two plus five is seven" as seven apples now occupy the bag. "I am certain" falls under the category of reason and logic as a way of knowing.?While the phrase "it is certain" is usually accepted as a statement of truth, "I am certain" is a more personal

• Word count: 2449
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### TOk Discussion - Do we impose mathematics upon nature or is it naturally inherent in the physical world? Does mathematics mimic nature or does nature follow the rules of mathematics?

First of all, beauty can be described by mathematics. Do we impose mathematics upon nature or is it naturally inherent in the physical world? Does mathematics mimic nature or does nature follow the rules of mathematics? A: Nature, in a sense, existed before humans applied mathematical knowledge to it. Humans saw patterns in nature and wanted to study them and give them names, so I believe mathematics is inherent in nature. V: In contrast, I think that we impose mathematics upon nature. Nature does not have the plan to conform to mathematical ideas, but we have created mathematical ideas to describe what we see in nature. The ideas themselves are created by us and are only constructs in our mind. Although the basis of mathematics come from the physical world, it has expanded far into the imaginary world and its concepts, although they could be applied to nature and the physical world, exist by themselves as imaginary ideas. The phi ratio is but an irrational constant, and cannot be exactly depicted in the physical world, just as you cannot pin down the square root of two on a number line. A: Also, mathematics does not have to be the sole explanation for why we find something beautiful in nature. It could be a biological aid in understanding the mechanisms of our world. It has been posited before that beauty signals safety and security. The ideal Savannah landscape features

• Word count: 2421
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### In what ways may disagreement aid the pursuit of knowledge in the natural and human sciences?

A disagreement occurs when a different opinion is expressed (Oxford Dictionary). To a certain degree, it is assumed by the question that disagreement aids in the pursuit of knowledge. There are cases that will be evoked that indicate otherwise. Isaac Newton stated that “if [he] has seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.” (Hawking, 9) He is stating that those who develop future pursuits of intellect in the form of knowledge are those who best understand and develop further works created by major thinkers of prior times. Newton believes that the in-depth study of others’ work, and at times disagreeing with some of it can push us forward in our pursuit of knowledge. The areas of knowledge being dealt with are pre-determined by the topic and are: human science and natural science. Natural science is a branch of science which deals with the physical world (Merriam-Webster). This includes physics, chemistry, and biology among others, including geology. This also includes human physiology. Anything in medicine discussing how our bodies work falls into the natural sciences. When we take that a step further to discuss behavior, this is what constitutes human science. This type of science is a field that deals with the institutions as well as the functioning of human society. This also encompasses the interpersonal relationships of

• Word count: 2380
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### Whats going on in Gaza?

TOK Essay Gaza By Jude Batayneh "This was 1,815 years ago, and yet the Jews solemnly pretend they still own Palestine! If such fantasy were allowed, how the map of the world would dance about!... If solid, uninterrupted Arab occupation for nearly 1,300 years does not make a country 'Arab', what does?" (King Abdullah I) List of facts: * Palestinians live their lives with no nation and no citizenship. Their power over their own lives is stripped from them. * The state of Israel, a product of European Jewish colonialism, came into existence through the 1947-49 war. * It was created on 78% of the land previously called Palestine, which had been populated by (10%) Christian, (4%) Jewish, and (86%) Muslim Arabs living in peace. * 750,000 Palestinian Arabs were violently pushed out in order to create this Jewish state. * They have never been allowed to return to their homes * In 1967, Israel simply conquered the final 22% of the set "Palestine". Since then, Palestinian lived under occupation. * Despite there being a Palestinian autonomous entity which was able to continue with public functions (i.e. health care, education, policing...), there is no doubt that Israel maintained overall power. * International law states that an occupying power has the responsibility of the civilians that are under its control. It seems that either Israel did not understand this

• Word count: 2358
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### Science gives us a tool to work out whether what we experience is real and what we are told is true.

"Science gives us a tool to work out whether what we experience is real and what we are told is true." by Nicola Montague-Patel Firstly, what is science? There are numerous possible answers to that, one of which could be “Is it to question, observe, and hypothesize about what we see or at least think we can see?” Over the millennia scientists have used tools and instruments to observe, conduct experiments, to record data from those experiments and to draw logical conclusions be they practical (i.e. visible) or purely hypothetical. Often in order to conduct scientific study in a new area scientists also needed to invent the very tools and instruments needed to perform the experiments. In all instances we know that conducting single experiments in isolation will not provide enough data to prove or disprove any theory. Scientist’s always seek to build a viable case; this process can often involve many years of striving to collect further experimental evidence and proof for their theories. There is a repetitive element to scientific experimentation due to inherent uncertainties, especially if the area of study is new. In the world of science proving a scientific theory is just as important as perhaps disproving the theory. In many cases scientific theories are frequently proved or disproved many years after the original proposals were made and all too frequently many

• Word count: 2355
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### Tok essay- context is all

"Context is all" (Margaret Atwood). Does this mean that there is no such thing as truth? To answer this question it is first necessary to define truth. One of the best definitions of truth is a 'justified true belief', but it can also be defined as a statement proven or accepted to be true. In essence truth is very hard to define, and so we are going to take 'the truth' as something which is believed to be true by the majority of people. This is because as a society, we take to be true what others see as truth, and what our ideals are based upon. Friedrich Nietzsche is known to have said "there are many kinds of eyes... and consequently there are many kinds of 'truths' and consequently there is no truth."1. This implies that because the context of truth and the individual opinion matter so much truth cannot exist, as it is always changing. The context of information is a very important factor in how truth is viewed. However, it has not been agreed upon whether a reliance on context means that there is no such thing as truth. This essay is going to explore several different ways of finding truth, and how they relate to Atwood's view of context, and then a conclusion will be made as to what extent the connection between contextual information and fact means that truth is nonexistent. The first method I am going to look at is the correspondence theory2. It insists that truth

• Word count: 2326
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### To what extent is truth different in mathematics, the arts, and ethics?

THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE ESSAY To what extent is truth different in mathematics, the arts, and ethics? TOK Question #1 To what extent is truth different in mathematics, the arts, and ethics? In order to answer this question effectively, one must begin to identify what exactly the question implies. Because the question is asking the 'extent' that truth is different in mathematics, the arts, and ethics; one must examine how different and similar each area of knowledge is concerning the truth. 'Truth' can be defined as something with justification, so one must examine how justified elements are related in the areas of knowledge (AOKs). One must clarify assumptions that though mathematics, the arts, and ethics are different subjects and require different ways of thinking; one should realize that there are parallels between them. Though truth in the arts and ethics are more similar to that in mathematics, there are connections between all of the truths. One must investigate the AOKs and the associated ways of knowing (WOKs) such as perception, emotion, reason, and language. At a first glance, it can be viewed that there is a 'universal truth' that connects everything, and in this essay, this will be explored in detail. In order to discern the difference between the truths in mathematics, the arts, and ethics; we must first question whether or not mathematics is an 'absolute' truth.

• Word count: 2281
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### Are the WOKS controlled by language?

Are our ways of knowing controlled by language? Are ways of knowing controlled by language? If yes, then language either controls it because all knowledge is communicated in language and there is some form of knowledge that cannot be transmitted so. Or that the structure of language restricts thought, which is part of the process of acquiring knowledge, and therefore knowledge. Language is syntax (used in this manner meaning representation of meaning), while the meaning it conveys is semantics. Communication is first done by encoding meaning in syntax, and then interpreting it again back into meaning. Thus language is the medium of communication. But can everything be expressed in language? If it can, then there would be no loss in the fidelity of information as it gets transmitted from one human to another. There would be no misunderstanding. But if it cannot, then we have a problem with using language as a means of communication. Let's take a simplified analogy of our relation with language. Data formats in computers. In computers, information is represented as data encoded in specific formats. Software must be able to understand the format in order to process it. Therefore there are standards that govern the format in which data is represented. Most of the documents on the web, for example, are encoded in HTML. Since it is standardized, web browsers merely have to

• Word count: 2278
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge

#### Defining and Analyzing Mixed Method Johnson and Christensen (2007) describe mixed research as the third and newest research methodology paradigm.

Defining and Analyzing Mixed Method Johnson and Christensen (2007) describe mixed research as the third and newest research methodology paradigm. Philosophically, mixed research takes an eclectic, pragmatic, and commonsense approach, suggesting that the researcher mix quantitative and qualitative in a way that works best for the given research question that is studied in a particular context. Mixed research uses both deductive and inductive methods, obtains both quantitative and qualitative data, attempts to corroborate and complement findings and takes a balanced approach to research. Researchers used the term mixed method to refer to all procedures collecting and analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data in the context of a single study. According to Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004), some researchers have taken issue with the term mixed methods to describe research designs that consciously blend both approaches within or across the stages of the research process. Researchers seeking associations between primarily quantitative biophysical and primarily qualitative socio cultural data, including environmental and natural resource anthropologists can look to mixed method research designs for structured and tested integrative processes. Such designs have been used to augment traditional methods for assessing and monitoring the impacts of recreation and tourism on the

• Word count: 2276
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Theory of Knowledge