To what extent can the human sciences achieve success by imitating the methods of the natural sciences?``

TOK Assignment Alba Ramaj IB09 06/06/08 Title:``To what extent can the human sciences achieve success by imitating the methods of the natural sciences?`` At the start of this course we summarized definition of knowledge.Knowledge, according to Plato,it is represented by 3 words: believed,true and justified.I say I know something when believe in it,if it is true and I can prove it is true by giving some evidence to it.Human and Natural sciences are a very important source of knowledge in our society. According to my opinion what the question is trying to do is : -give a us a clear view about human and natural sciences role in gaining knowledge -are human and natural similar ( methods) or different (methods) -Is the knowledge gained from Human Science different from knowledge gained from Natural Sciences; and can it be reliable?? Natural Sciences denote subjects like physics,chemistry and biology. Natural Sciences have had a great success in providing new knowledge and as a result some people consider it as the only road to knowledge,and if you don't prove something scientifically then you can`t say you know it. Science is considered a stamp of approval or guarantee of quality.But we can argue that if scientific beliefs change over time,so how the certainty can be gained? Science doesn`t have a full control of the truth and for the rest of society there exist other ways

  • Word count: 1879
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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History is always on the move, slowly eroding todays orthodoxy and making space for yesterdays heresy. Discuss the extent to which this claim applies to history and at least one other area of knowledge.

Theory of Knowledge Essay on prescribed title Word Count: 1587 Date: January 2008 "History is always on the move, slowly eroding today's orthodoxy and making space for yesterday's heresy." Discuss the extent to which this claim applies to history and at least one other area of knowledge. In order to find out if the claim applies to the areas of knowledge history and chemistry I will break the question down in three parts. Firstly I ask if history and chemistry move. Secondly I question if it erodes today's orthodoxy and finally I consider if yesterday's heresy takes over. In my opinion the claim applies to some extent to history and to a great extent to chemistry. Are history and chemistry always on the move? Moves in history can have various causes: the discovery of new facts, a different focus of interest or a political shift. In the year 2005 a Bosnian archaeologist called Semir Osmanagic suspects there are pyramids in his homeland Bosnia and Herzegovina. Anthropologists say the Visoko valley already offers ample evidence of organized human settlements dating back 7000 years.1 This discovery would change the entire European history. Something that was commonly accepted, that the first pyramids came from Egypt, has altered completely. Thus history is moving. A counter argument to this could be that history just repeats itself and does not move at all. The

  • Word count: 1876
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Seeing James the Red Engine cry, prompted me to ask whether a machine could ever actually experience emotion, which raises the centuries-old philosophical question: Can machines have minds?

Title: Can Machines have Minds? Part of the syllabus to which it relates: The Core Theme-Could animals or machines be persons? Word Count: 1644 words Source material: Picture and text extract from 'Troublesome Trucks' James the Red Engine by the Rev.W.Awdry. Seeing "James the Red Engine"1 cry, prompted me to ask whether a machine could ever actually experience emotion, which raises the centuries-old philosophical question: Can machines have minds? The immediate, instinctive reply to this question by nearly all people is a resounding 'No', and people develop a variety of reasons to maintain the distinctiveness of the human (and some 'higher' animal) ability to think. Is it just vanity that provokes us to argue against the idea of machines having minds? Or is it conceivable that machines have the power to think in the same way that we do? In order to answer this question it is necessary to determine what the human mind really is and for this we need to examine both dualist and monist theories. The problem here is how to ask if machineshave minds when we are unsure of whether we have them ourselves. I therefore propose to answer the question, Can machines think like us? Let us first examine the natural instinctive argument that most will support. It seems illogical to believe that machines have minds, as indeed we have trouble projecting minds onto everything other than

  • Word count: 1876
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Are moral values invented or discovered? What importance does this question have for moral debate and decision-making?

Are moral values invented or discovered? What importance does this question have for moral debate and decision-making? Realism about ethics could be described as the naïve conception of ethics, as ordinary morality seems to endorse the view that matters of ethics are matters of facts. This is seen in the language we use to describe moral judgements, the use of the categorical imperative without recourse to justifications by reasoning or opinions. It is further corroborated by the strong feeling that attaches itself to moral judgements; in believing an action to be good, we are committed to it being the right thing to do, not subject to difference in taste or opinion. However, if we accept that moral facts do exist independently of us and can be known, we are now faced with some difficult questions: What kind of facts are these? How do we come to know them? How can we account for the many examples of disagreement over the facts and come to the correct view? John Mackie offers two main arguments against the objectivity of moral values. The first of these deals with the first two questions raised above, regarding the possible nature of objective moral values and our access to them. Certainly moral statements are not 'about' things in the more obvious way that statements of science are, and cannot be verified by empirical evidence save perhaps our own psychological tendencies.

  • Word count: 1874
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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How Inner nature and survival of the fittest relate to the relationship of mind and body in the case of Floyd Mayweathers boxing match against Victor Ortiz.

A Boxer's Instinct, What is a Human Being? How Inner nature and survival of the fittest relate to the relationship of mind and body in the case of Floyd Mayweather's boxing match against Victor Ortiz. Candidate Number: 000875-022 Name: Harrison Reece IB Internal Assessment: Philosophy High Point Central High School Exam Session: May 2012 Word Count: 1851 Source Stimulus: http://straightfromthea.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Victor-Ortiz-Floyd-Mayweather-2011-Getty1.jpg Victor Ortiz (left) getting knocked out by Floyd Mayweather (right). What is a human being? Who are we and how do we function? What is the relationship between mind and body? What are the instincts that we are born with, can we control our instincts, and can we actually develop instincts over our life span? The relationship between mind and body can be studied through athletes and their relationships between mind and body throughout all sports, and how under certain circumstances they have innate reactions that they cannot control and that are out of their mind's control. Examples of this are evident throughout sports as a whole, but perhaps portrayed best more so in a particular example through a boxing match between Floyd Mayweather and Victor Ortiz to become World Champion. The fight ended in a highly controversial manner, and because of its highly controversial outcome, in how Floyd

  • Word count: 1856
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Our senses tell us that a table, for example, is a solid object; science tells us that the table is mostly empty space. Thus two sources of knowledge generate conflicting results. Can we reconcile such conflicts?

THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE ESSAY Title of the essay: Our senses tell us that a table, for example, is a solid object; science tells us that the table is mostly empty space. Thus two sources of knowledge generate conflicting results. Can we reconcile such conflicts? Submitted by Roshan Rai IB Year 2 We have different sources from which we draw knowledge, or at least, what we think we know. But a central question has to be, 'What is knowledge?' According to the Cambridge dictionary, 'knowledge is understanding of or information about a subject which has been obtained by experience or study, and which is either in a person's mind or possessed by people generally'. There are various sources through which we obtain knowledge. While some sources of knowledge are more reliable than the others, it is difficult to say if the concept of an absolute truth could ever be established. How much we rely on those sources depend primarily on how true and valid we think they are. Like many things, truth is relative. Hence, anything, which is true at a given point of time, at a given place, may be surprisingly different in another context. Every piece of knowledge is hence relative, and this relativity in context and approach manifests in what we see as different areas of knowledge. My discussion of this topic will centre around the analysis of how the differences in various areas of knowledge

  • Word count: 1853
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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We see and understand things not as they are but as we are. Discuss this claim in relation to at least two ways of knowing.

"We see and understand things not as they are but as we are." Discuss this claim in relation to at least two ways of knowing. Mankind has always argued about what is good and what is bad; about what is desirable and what is undesirable and about what is beautiful and what is ugly. But what decides how we see and understand things? What decides how we judge? Does it depend on the individual or is there a general objective perception that is shared by all human beings? Do we see and understand things as they are or as we are? This is an investigation into the nature of perception discussing claims and counterclaims related to three ways of knowing Emotion, Language and Perception. The key to answering this question is to analyse whether human beings see and understand things depending on the individual - which would indicate that understanding is influenced by the person itself - or whether a general objective opinion can be established - indicating that we see things as they are. Relating the title question to emotion, the knowledge issue arises whether our perception is altered by our emotional state? For example, are individuals beautiful to us if we love them, or do we love individuals if they are beautiful? In other words: does love, which is a personal and subjective emotion1, influence our judgement of a person? A famous phrase exists: "To see things through

  • Word count: 1850
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Can a Machine Know? TOK essay.

Can a Machine Know? Theory of Knowledge Essay Exams May 2007 Word count: 1574 ________________ Topic 9 - Can a machine know? As machines are becoming more and more advanced and complex in the contemporary world, the question of whether a machine is capable of knowing its actions and the implications of this has arisen as an important topic in modern epistemology. The common meaning of a machine is a device that performs work or a task. One of the most common definitions of knowledge is for it to be justified true belief, in the words of Plato; even if Edmund Gettier suggested that those conditions sometimes are not sufficient[1]. But generally in the case of machines, the understanding of the process of correctly executing the task being preformed can also serve as a criterion for knowledge. Reasoning from these definitions, there is strong evidence for the case that machines do have the ability to know. When a machine performs a task, it is transforming energy into useful work or vice versa. This principle applies to all types of machines, for example clocks, pumps, mechanical devices and electric machines etc. One can argue that due to the design of the machine, where the components of it work together to transform energy into work the machine must possess knowledge to carry out this task, which derives from the arrangements of the components. The knowledge may be

  • Word count: 1839
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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People need to believe that order can be glimpsed in the chaos of events (adapted from John Gray, Heresies, 2004). In what ways and to what extent would you say this claim is relevant in at least two areas of knowledge?

"People need to believe that order can be glimpsed in the chaos of events" (adapted from John Gray, Heresies, 2004). In what ways and to what extent would you say this claim is relevant in at least two areas of knowledge? In my essay I am going to discuss the importance of chaos and order in real life, and to what extent I agree with the title statement. The key concepts of this title is that belief is a necessity in perceiving order in chaotic events, and whether I approve or disapprove with this statement I shall evident my claim through two areas of knowledge. My claim is that belief is important to perceive order, and that it is necessary for people to believe that order can be glimpsed in the chaos of events, because the order is relying on the basis of belief and without believing the order will not be perceptible. This claim is relevant in all areas of knowledge as the chaos theory can be applied to all knowledge, but my main focus will primarily involve history and environmental science as my two areas of knowledge that will be viewed from perception and reason as my ways of knowing. The knowledge issues that are present are taken out of two real life situations, the first real life situation would be a prognosis of upcoming weather conditions, and the second, the Mayan civilization's foreshadowing of future events. The issues that are raised in this essay will be

  • Word count: 1835
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Knowledge gives us a sense of who we are. To what extent is this true in the Human Sciences and Ethics?

[Kevin TOK Essay] July 6, 2013 “Knowledge gives us a sense of who we are.” To what extent is this true in the Human Sciences and Ethics? Socrates once said, “To know, is to know that you know nothing. That is the meaning of true knowledge” [1]. In similar vein, Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, “Knowledge is knowing that we cannot know” [1]. A great Indian master, Nisargadatta Maharaj once quoted, “To know what you are, you must first investigate and know what you are not” [2]. What were Socrates, Emerson, Nisargadatta hinting at? Is there any such thing as ‘knowledge’ and if so, can this knowledge ever give us a sense of who we are? Is there one concrete sense of ‘who we are’ that persists all throughout our lives or is our sense of identity a montage of ever-changing psychological and behavioral dynamics? Is the knower even capable of using ways of knowing to grasp a sense of who he/she is? If so, which way of knowing is more trustworthy and which area of knowledge should these ways of knowing be applied to, to get a better sense of who one is? Human sciences provides a sense of how we behave in the social context but not a sense of who we are at a personal level while Natural sciences while Thesis (….) I will be limiting my areas of knowledge to Human Sciences and Natural Sciences. Human Sciences, Psychology in particular, does attempt to

  • Word count: 1833
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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