Sources of Knowledge

Nicole Lobo TOK - Informal Journal Entry 7. Which sources of knowledge- books, web sites, the media, personal experience, authorities or some other- do you consider most trustworthy, and why? There are many sources of knowledge, some of the main sources include: books, the Internet, the media, personal experience and authorities. Among the sources mentioned above, all except personal experience are known as second-hand knowledge. This means that the knowledge is obtained through others' research and observations. It is a way of sharing knowledge. Although all these sources are commonly used and are important they have limitations and should not just be accepted as it may not be true knowledge as it may not be justified. Because of this, some sources are more trustworthy than others. One of the most common sources of knowledge is through books. Books are usually very trustworthy as experts write them and have knowledge on that specific subject matter. They are authorities on the subject. Although, we should not always rely on what the experts say as it may not always be true. For example, in science, new discoveries are being made everyday thus the "knowledge" we thought to have had on the subject is wrong and is therefore not knowledge. For Campbell Biology one might want to trust the newer editions, as the knowledge will be more valuable than an older edition. Other

  • Word count: 473
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Knowledge, Belief, Opinion

Thuy-Khue Tran Ms. Takao 2 January 2009 Theory of Knowledge Information is often misconstrued, distorted and erred. Due to the vast availability of information, the line between knowledge, belief and opinion is frequently blurred. It is difficult to distinguish one from another when striving for true wisdom. The incessant quest for true wisdom addresses the question, "How do we know what we know?" However, the answer cannot be rudimentary and concise when the architecture of the human mind is intricately divided into three categories: knowledge, belief and opinion. The investigation of the source, nature, manner and limits of human thoughts unveils the difference between knowledge, belief and opinion. Knowledge, belief and opinion are three separate things; they are not interchangeable. Without knowledge, opinions do not exist and without opinions, belief does not exist. Each provides a foundation for one another therefore they can not be the same. But different as they may be, knowledge, belief and opinion are all interrelated. They are fundamental to how humans think and reason. In all of man's intellectual endeavors, there is a struggle to achieve the impossible, to validate all three. Knowledge is taught in through a text book, belief arises from religion and opinion originates from thoughts. Correspondence, coherence, and consistency go hand in hand with

  • Word count: 472
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Northrop Frye in The motive for metaphor compares science and art. The common element between the two seems to be imagination. In science it becomes the final element and in art the starting point.

'The motive for metaphor' Northrop Frye Northrop Frye in 'The motive for metaphor' compares science and art. The common element between the two seems to be imagination. In science it becomes the final element and in art the starting point. In Frye view, a scientist examines the world which we are given to live, scrutinises all the data and attempts at forming certain theories which would underlay the rules governing the world. I doing so, he moves from the known realm, tangible world towards the concepts in his mind, therefore a creation of imagination. The more he approaches the goal, the more he takes advantage of the language of mathematics, which is after all 'one of the languages imagination'. On the other hand, an artist sees the world, chooses what strikes him and then with the help of imagination creates a pretend realm. To put it differently, an artist starts with an idea existing in the dimension of his imagination and then draws nearer to the realistic world. He must make his creation as real as possible, therefore he must employ his intellect which through logical planning captures the emotions and converts them into an ordered world of his. Both a scientist and an artist fall back on intuition and logic in their work. A scientist intuitively undertakes one of the possible streams of his theories and also uses the logic to verify their plausibility. An

  • Word count: 472
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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According to Theodor Adorno, Art is a form of knowledge. His quote implies that art can convey and generate knowledge to people.

Style and register People in the whole wide world, including myself, they have experienced art once in their lifetime. Everybody experienced art, therefore most of people think that art is near human life. Humans are thinking that art is very simple and easy however, what if we say "Knowledge is generated through the creation of art?" Art is not simple as we think. "Knowledge is derived in and through aesthetic experience or more modestly that knowledge can be derived in and through aesthetic experience"(John Ryder). When people create art, they have to understand it and during that process people found knowledge. Knowledge definitely generated through the creation of art. Art is one of the deepest and esoteric subjects. Everything we learn, mathematics, science, language, emotion, history, ethics and perceptions are all related to the art. Before explaining about knowledge and art, what is art? "Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth- at least the truth that is given to understand" (Pablo Picasso, 1881-1973). Humans derive enormous pleasure from the arts. To be something as work of art, artists must contain their intentions which can evoke aesthetic response from the audience, quality of the art work. Mostly artist want to communicate with audience by art pieces. For example, Vincent van Gogh didn't draw "Sunflower" just because of beauty. He drew "Sunflower" to

  • Word count: 464
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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To understand something you have to rely on your own experience and culture. Does this mean it is impossible to have objective knowledge?

TOK Extended essay question To understand something you have to rely on your own experience and culture. Does this mean it is impossible to have objective knowledge? Can people rely on only experience and culture as a way of knowing? And is it possible to have an objective opinion, or do people just claim to be to be "objective" even though they're not? This question has no one specific answer and can be viewed from many ways. "‘Culture’ is the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group, or the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings and transmitted from one generation to another". Therefore, culture does effect decisions on some concepts and affects people's point of view, based on their culture. Now days in Oman, marriage is affected by people's culture. Oman is known for its mixture of race but every citizen here is still an 'Omani' although they all belong to different surnames and tribes. This affects people's decision on who to marry and what 'surname', preferably the same one or one that belongs to the same tribe. This is common in my country and when a person is looking for a wife or husband the first thing they'd look for is someone from that specific surname. Although marriage is known as being based on the experience of love and trust. Experience is a group of events and incidents that a

  • Word count: 463
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Machiavelli the prince philosophy essa

Chapter 9 of Niccollo Machiavelli's text 'concerning a civil principality,' shows a great understanding and a simple way of explaining, the idea's and concerns following around the subject. The text was highly informative, cutting any irrelevant historical sources which would have unnecessarily complicated the text itself and limit our understanding of the topic itself. It share information about the forms of principality and how it may come to be, giving us more understanding therefore avoiding being too vague and summarised. It starts with an explanation of civil principality where the prince is brought into power by its citizens through being favoured without any form of force thrust upon the people to have him in power. It goes on to say that Princes can be chosen by either the people or the nobles each with their own desires and that due to these clashes of interest one of 3 may arise, principality, self-government or anarchy. Machiavelli's realisation of the importance of the people themselves is the one significant reason that his writing is so influential within political philosophy. He understand that the whole power of a principality or almost any government rests within it people, who the prince must keep happy in order to control and no political philosopher before him has given so much significance to the people as the source, because if the people are not happy

  • Word count: 462
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Although pragmatism has its values for society as a whole, emotion is necessary for the individual to find a place within society.

Personal Journal 1 In discussion regarding the changing roles of men and women in the last 50 years, there came an outpouring of weighted responses from a great number of students, both male and female. These weighted responses stemmed from an emotional reaction regarding gender discrimination. It was said that, because racial discrimination is unethical, gender discrimination must follow similarly. However, the idea of ethics is relative at its core. What is moral and immoral changes as the general sentiments of society evolve. Expanding on this idea, the evolution of morality within society does not necessarily mean that the ideas of society become more pure, as this is also relative. From a purely factual standpoint, there is no tangible evidence to support the fact that men and women are created equally. Humans possess the ability to dictate the intricacies of society as we so please. Somehow, at this point in time, it is generally felt that discrimination is wrong. However, it is illogical to consider that anything deemed immoral is truly wrong, it has merely been categorized as immoral or unethical and these ideas exiled into undesirable parts of society. In short, these societal attitudes are based on emotion. These feelings have a rational basis. In nature, one could argue that each organism contributes and influences the world and every other living being in a

  • Word count: 461
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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TOK areas of knowledge, ways of knowing related to Ramadan

TOK Ways of Knowledge (WOK) during the Holiday of Ramadan Language- Language functions as a symbol capturing and communicating thoughts and experiences. The first morning of Ramadan my father and three brothers attend mosque. There we listen to the Imam who preaches about the holidays, virtue and the importance of repenting and making up with people during the holidays. He talks about the Quran, Allah and prophet Mohammed. We obtain knowledge through his rhetorical language describing religion. After his preach everyone prays following the Imam facing Makah. During the prayers the imam recite the Quran in its Arabic text. The WOK of language appears three times, in Turkish, English than Arabic. Emotion- Muslims have two major holidays a year, similar to Christians who have Christmas and Easter. Ramadan is the bigger of the two and would be the equivalent of Christmas for Muslims. The WOK in emotion is present during this holiday. People build up excitement from weeks before. People begin to prepare weeks before the actual 3 days of the holiday. It’s not as big of a deal here because there isn’t as much of a Muslim population but in countries where Muslims are the majority it is a national holiday and there is a holiday spirit from weeks before. Sense Perception- Some people may perceive the holidays as the best time of the year but this could be our sense of

  • Word count: 460
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Language as a source of Knowledge

ILYAS SHAIKHIBDP 1 Language as a source of knowledge The English word "language" derives ultimately from Indo-European dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s "tongue, speech, language" through Latin lingua, "language, tongue", and Old French langage "language”. The word is sometimes used to refer to codes, ciphers and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as those used for computer programming. A language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information. Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment The recorded history of Western linguistics begins with a confrontation between two fundamental opposing of language: language as a source of knowledge, and language as a mere medium of communication. Does language have a direct and essential link with reality, spirituality, or physical, or is it purely arbitrary? The implications are considerable: But if it is arbitrary, then nothing of broader significance is to be gained from its study: the goal of linguistics will be the understanding of language and nothing more. Although this is the view- in many cases, the unspoken assumption- of mainstream linguistics today, it has not always

  • Word count: 457
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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ToK essay- we see and understand things not as they are but as we are

"We see and understand things not as they are, but as we are." This statement is fathomable to an extent since we as individuals are moulded by society. There are two ways of knowning I would like to illustrate, belief and truth. In a human's mind there is a very fine line between the two, and with progressive reexamining of facts even "truth" is being altered. To a believer, the belief is a truth and that is how myths become legendary. Also perception is an important element of our gained "knowledge". Two different individuals who have had very dissmiliar experiences will have various opinions regarding a vast amount of things this is why some people have arachnophobia but others are completely comfortable around spiders. This shows that perception plays a great role in the making of the foundations of our society. The example I would like to throw light upon is the contreversial subject of cannibalism. Suprisingly, the single most influential factor that drives people into becoming a cannibal is social pressure. But we as a produce of a civilised society think of this as a devastating and savage act but in certain tribes of Africa it is seen as aintegral part of a ritual and also humans that are devoured are only eaten as a form of punishment. The tribe leaders equate this to cannibalism and also use the theory of evolution where members of various classes eat the same

  • Word count: 457
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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