4 ways of argument-analysis of the Miracle on Ice speech.

Tyler Westover 2/8/12 Lackovic p.2 4 Elements of Argument Thesis: This is a great opportunity to do something great, and although it is very unlikely we can still win this game. Audience: The coach of the American’s gives this speech to the players of the United States hockey team in the 1980 Olympic Games. Exigence: This speech is delivered just before the championship game in the 1980 Olympic hockey game by the United States’ coach to pump up his players and prepare them for the big game. Support: Ethos: Coach Herb Brooks has accidental ethos in his speech because he is the coach of the team. Had he not been an expert in hockey or one of the best coaches in America, he would not be the coach and therefore he has the respect of everyone around him. Pathos: This scene appeals mostly to pathos. As Coach Brooks said using logos, that they are going lose against the USSR, he uses the pathos appeal to make them believe they can win the game. Without pathos, there is no way any of the players would have been convinced they had a chance to win the game. Also, with the presence of the championship game of the 1980 Olympics is the very near future, emotions of the players at the time of this speech are already naturally high. Logos: The coach begins his speech by admitting that statistically the Russians will be them 9 out of 10 times. He uses facts to show that most

  • Word count: 456
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Do we learn more history from text books or historical novels

"Do we learn more history from text books or historical novels?" To answer this question we need to understand what does history text book and historical novel mean. For example, here is a definition taken from the dictionary "historical text book is a range of critical analysis, evaluation, and selection of authentic source materials and composition of these materials into a narrative subject to scholarly methods of criticism". While the same dictionary provides us with another information for definition of the historical novel " is that has as its setting a period of history and that attempts to convey the spirit, manners, and social conditions of a past age with realistic detail and fidelity (which is in some cases only apparent fidelity) to historical fact." From this information we can deduct that textbooks have limited information about past events and they cannot go into much details. For example, in some sections over various wars over the years, textbooks have different battles as subtopics; however, they only pick a selected few battles from the war and are sometimes bias with the battles they chose to pick. If it is an American textbook often times the battles they do choose will be the majority that the Americans did well in, as opposed to if it was a British textbook, they would not have multiple battles where they were defeated by American troops, etc. Also

  • Word count: 455
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Facts or feelings what is more important? We cant prove anything without facts and without facts, there is nothing that would provoke feelings in us.

Facts or feelings - what is more important? We can't prove anything without facts and without facts, there is nothing that would provoke feelings in us. But if I have to choose between the two options , I would unquestionably choose emotions because without them we are nothing. Emotions help us live life. We are happy, sad, angry all because we "feel ". We fail to realize that the world which we live in is a world of emotions. Without feelings we humans will not be very different from robots who do what they are supposed to, tirelessly without ever "feeling" any emotion. It is emotions which make us realize what is right and what is wrong; it is emotions which give us enough passion to drive through every obstacle and it is emotions which make the human kind unsellable. Some people do say that we are living in a world where facts are veryuthing and there has to be a reason behind whatever we do, even what we feel. But what the yforget in this "factual" style of thinking is that at the end of the day we do what we want to, what our heart desires, not what we must do or what our brain suggests after solving all the trivial conspiracies of the society. If we look back in time, To this day, we suffer because Adam and Eve chose to give in to their feelings rather than the fact that God had told them not to eat the forbidden fruit in His garden of eden. the human kind has been

  • Word count: 451
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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The aspect of religion in Love in the Times of Cholera and Like Water for Chocolate

The aspect of religion in Love in the Times of Cholera and Like Water for Chocolate ____________________________________________________________________ Because of the family tradition in the book "Like water for chocolate" Tita is assigned the role of the care-giver and this family tradition requires that she cant get married to Pedro and instead she has to stay at the ranch and look after her widowed mother all of her life and in the De La Garza family one obeyed immediately, so therefore, she had no choice but to follow the traditions or she faces the consequences. Catholism also plays a huge role as far as religion is concerned, because Tita and her family grew up in a catholic family. Moreover, catholism is also a huge factor in Tita's life, because in one part of the book she feels so guilty that she sees Mama Elena's ghost scolding her for her intimate relationship with Pedro. The ghost of Mama Elena was a representation of Tita's guilt - sleeping with her lover Pedro who is already married to her sister, because she feels shame every time Mama Elena's ghost appears. Tita was affected greatly by this tradition, because she did not want to take care of her mother till old age, because she felt that somebody should also be there to take care of her in her own old age, hence Tita is only one who questions the tradition Mama Elena tries to keep alive and faces her

  • Word count: 448
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Are some ways of knowing more likely to lead to the truth?

Are some ways of knowing more likely to lead to the truth? Discovering the truth may proceed in different ways. Depending on the circumstances or the aim of "research", one of the four ways of knowing may be used: emotion, perception, reason or language. Usually, they may be also used together, as far as some of them, at least in my opinion, are very related. Discussing the "efficiency" of WOK in leading to the truth, I think none of them is better or worse. Each has different features, strengths and limitations. However, used together may provide us very closely, or even fully to the truth. Every belief is based on some knowledge. So the processes of acquainting the knowledge influence leading to the truth. Referring to the first WOK, perception, at first I would say, it is the basic way of recording the external world. By senses, people see, feel, hear everything around, seemingly as it is. However, thinking of the perception more deeply, it is not that objective as it seems to be. The process of becoming aware of the reality is often selective- people see what they what to see; also all the observations and then conclusions are interpreted, basing on one's experiences. This make the perception as WOK quite difficult to lead to any general, public truth. Focusing on the second aspect, emotion, I find this way of knowing very related to the previously mentioned. Perceiving

  • Word count: 448
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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In an article entitled Good readers and good writers Nabokov enumerates qualities a good reader should be endowed with.

year I, group A HOW TO BE A GOOD READER? In an article entitled 'Good readers and good writers' Nabokov enumerates qualities a good reader should be endowed with. First of all, a good reader must concentrate on details. It is vital to study them carefully and only then draw relevant conclusions. Nabokow calls the details 'sunny trifles' because though they are seemingly unimportant, they shed light on the meaning of the book as a whole. Nabokov warns against reaching for a book with already preconceived views. This would thwart a reader from a proper understanding of a book. A good reader has to bear in mind that any book is merely a work of fiction, not an exact replica of reality. Therefore, he must not expect to gain knowledge on a particular subject from books. Nabokov makes an interesting claim that a good reader is actually a rereader, because he needs time to become familiar with the book and only after a second or third reading can he appreciate all the details. Therefore we need time to take in all the relevant details. The problem with the book is that it requires elaborate physical effort, which hinders artistic appreciation of it. But the sight alone would not be sufficient to appreciate the book. A good reader should mainly use his mind to savour a book. A good reader should also be endowed with imagination. There are two kinds of imagination: personal and

  • Word count: 445
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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TOK mathematics knowledge at work

Bancroft Elizabeth Bancroft Mrs. Gallaher Theory of Knowledge 28 October 2012 Knowledge at Work Math could be the next step towards the cure for cancer Recently, I came across an article regarding math as a practical use later in life. This article explained how the process of math is potentially useful in discovering the cure for cancer. I will discuss how this discovery came about and why we should never stop learning the higher levels of math. Mathematical research is the prime example of using reason in human life. In a recent study that combined math and medicine, researchers have proved that patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) may be cured. Doron Levy, University of Maryland associate professor of mathematics, Peter P. Lee, Stanford Medical School physician, and Peter S. Kim of France, created a mathematic model to create a vaccination for the cancer. Patients with the disease were given an optimally timed cancer vaccine. The timing for administering the drug was determined based on their own immune response. This optimally timed vaccine was mathematically derived. These researchers determined that there may be a precise way of giving the patient a specific amount of a drug in the vaccine at a particular time in their cancer treatment, so that they will be cured

  • Word count: 443
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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Personal Journal 2 Observation is a major problem. One cannot monitor peoples minds, only their behavior.

Personal Journal 2 Observation is a major problem. One cannot monitor people’s minds, only their behavior. These can be overcome by using questionnaires, surveys, opinion polls, interviews, etc, but we all know that we lie in those too! We tend to overestimate ourselves, or underestimate ourselves. Another problem is scaling. If asks how well you get along with people, on a scale to one to ten, what are you to compare yourself too? With questionnaires and surveys, there tend to be loaded questions, which manipulate your answers. This is done though language. Another example is using the word ‘national service’ instead of ‘compulsory conscription’. National service sounds much more positive, and acceptable, though they are the same thing. Another issue that arises with observation is in hypothetical situations. If you asked someone what they would do if they saw a woman getting attacked, they might say that they would go out and save her, or call the police. But when in the actual situation, people often freeze up and just become bystanders. People have trouble guessing their future actions accurately. The ‘observer effect’ is another difficulty with observation. In the natural world, rocks and plants do not change their behavior when being watched, but humans do. The question is, how do we prevent the observer effect? Some methods are habituation, and hidden

  • Word count: 440
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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You cannot study a human scientifically in the same way as you can study any other animal. Discuss.

"You cannot study a human scientifically in the same way as you can study any other animal." Discuss. To fully answer the question, we must make sure we actually understand what is meant by scientifically study; when we look it up in the dictionary we get the following definition: "The use of techniques to investigate phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge." That said my feelings are divided. On one hand I totally disagree, on the other hand a major part of me sais that there must be some truth in that statement. As I just said a part of me disagrees, because not only can we study the anatomy of animals in the same way we do for humans, but we are also starting to understand both their mental state (i.e. their emotions, their thoughts, ...) and their communication system. At a scientific level they recently taught monkeys to express both their feelings and their desires by the use of sign language. Nevertheless at our level we can easily recognise if our pets are happy, hungry or even if there are tired. On the other hand there is a limitation in the study of animals. Firstly we quickly realises that the human brain is much more complex. Nevertheless during the last five decays, many philosophers and psychoanalyst have made huge discoveries about the human brain and how it works. They have done that using different techniques,

  • Word count: 439
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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What is reality?

Personal Journal 3 This appears to be a very simple question to answer. Reality, in my opinion, is our world our emotion and physical state of mind, our surroundings, and our very being on this planet. It is the life we live, the air we breathe and the words we speak. However, what if reality is not this? What if what we see, smell, hear, touch and feel is all just an illusion? What if all our lives have never been “real”? This is definitely an alarming notion. To think that our existence on Earth is unreal is very absurd to some. However, we must attempt to explore this area. We must attempt to uncover the true meaning of ‘reality’ and its significance. And we must attempt to accept the findings, for they are rooted deeply in our existence. The topic of questioning our reality has been ongoing for several centuries. Beginning with Plato to our modern day media, our existence has been tested and questioned constantly. There are many theories that relate to our ‘fake reality’. One such one is that we are all an illusion. Our entire life is simply just a part of our imagination. We start to really ‘live’ only after our imagined death. Another theory points out that everything thing we see in our lives is distorted, and this distortion leads to a deceiving perspective of our live. This causes what we perceive to be fake. Quotes such as, “Are you sure a floor

  • Word count: 438
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Theory of Knowledge
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