The knowledge that we value the most is the knowledge for which we can provide the strongest justifications. To what extent would you agree with this claim?
Humans possess many kinds of knowledge; knowledge that was arrived at logically, knowledge based on perceptions, and religious knowledge are all some examples. This combination of knowledge gives us an advantage and separates us from the rest of the species on Earth, so it can be said to be of great value to mankind. However of all the knowledge that we have individually, some are more valuable than others. I believe the knowledge that we value the most is the knowledge for which we can provide the strongest justifications. The definition of knowledge itself is justified true beliefs ; therefore the more justifications we have for a true belief, the more proof we have for the knowledge to be valid. With strong justifications, we are also less likely to question the truth behind certain knowledge, and would be more compelled to believe it. Arriving at valid knowledge through logic is an example that offers strong justifications. For example, if all of A is B, and all of B is C, then we can logically deduce that all of A must be C. There would be no way to question this conclusion because its justifications allow no room for doubt, so we can positively accept that all A must be C. This knowledge holds its value in that its justifications are so concrete that it would be impossible for us to question it, and the fact that we can now accept it as knowledge with little doubt
"What I tell you three times is true." (Lewis Carroll) Might this formula - Or a more sophisticates version of it actually determine what we believe to be true?
"What I tell you three times is true." (Lewis Carroll) Might this formula - Or a more sophisticates version of it actually determine what we believe to be true? "What is Truth? Said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer." 1 Had he stayed for an answer he would still be waiting. The term 'truth' has no entire satisfactory definition; however truth is generally accepted as having three key characteristics. These being; that one, truth is something that is public and true for everybody. Two that truth is independent of anyone's beliefs, meaning that a statement can be completely and utterly false though; everyone still believes it to be true, and finally that truth is eternal, meaning that if something is true, it will always be true. Although 'truth' is so uncertain, it is still said to be the basis for all of our knowledge. Looking closely at the truth, the factors affecting the truth and the reliability of the above formula, I will show in this essay that there is an underlying uncertainty in the word 'truth.' Based on a series of examples, I will show how truth can and cannot gain validity through the formula; "What I tell you three times is true." As shown in the aforementioned characteristics of truth, truth is independent of anyone's beliefs. For example, the truth of my statement 'my car is fast' is independent of whether one thinks it to true or not. I
Julián Riveros Décimo A Marzo 30, 2008 PROBLEMÁTICA MUNDIAL, AGUA POTABLE La concientización de la escasez del agua comenzó desde la década de los años 60, este problema se ha convertido poco a poco en una situación crítica para el mundo entero. La cantidad de agua sobre el mundo cubre dos terceras partes de la superficie total de la tierra, pero gran parte conforma el agua no potable. Numerosos científicos e investigadores han hablado de qué pasará cuando el agua potable se acabe, y todas las consecuencias que esto llevaría. En el siguiente ensayo se explicarán las consecuencias que llevará la escasez del agua sobre el ser humano y la naturaleza, también sobre las estadísticas actuales y finalmente sobre las soluciones y prevenciones para evitar el desperdicio del agua. Investigadores y científicos han predicado que si hay algo seguro es que en este nuevo milenio y justo en este siglo la probabilidad de que una tercera parte de los países con gran demanda de agua empiece a tener escasez severa de agua, y para el año 2025 dos tercios de la población mundial vivirán en países con escasez moderada o hasta severa. Expertos han llevado a los límites esta investigación, y han predicho que el la época en que el agua se acabe, los humanos sufrirán de problemas renales, problemas gastrointestinales, enfermedades en las vías urinarias, y
Chapter 6: EMOTION The Nature of Emotions: The word 'emotion' is derived from the Latin word movere meaning 'to move'. In general sense it includes feelings, passions, and moods etc. An emotion usually consists of various internal feelings and external forms of behavior, and it can vary in intensity from mild irritation to blind anger. Passion is reserved for a strong emotion where mood is an emotion which continues for a period of time. * Primary Emotions: The six basic or primary emotions are: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, And disgust. Important to remember is that even children who are born blind and deaf show these emotions and therefore this suggests that they are inborn rather than learnt. * The James Lange Theory: There exists a close relationship between our bodies and our emotions as the primary emotions have a typical facial expression associated with them. According to James Lange theory, the emotions are physical in nature, and bodily changes cause emotional changes as they come before them as well. If you remove the physical symptoms, the corresponding emotion disappears. And similarly, mimicking the appropriate physical symptoms can generate the corresponding emotion. The theory also suggests a mechanism through which one can know and empathize with others' feelings. So when one talk to someone, for example, who is depressed, they
Science cannot be separated from ethical concerns. Discuss. Choosing what type of babies we want as if shopping for a toy doll is morally unjustifiable and goes against natures free course. When we trade away organs from our body as if they are mere
9) Science cannot be separated from ethical concerns. Discuss. Ethics concern us with doing what is morally right or wrong. It brings stability to a society so that people are kept in line from performing extreme acts of crime and violence, especially with the help of developments in science today. When science is brought into the picture, people debate about its benefits and detriments by using ethics as the benchmark. With the introduction of euthanasia, this particular scientific invention sparked ethical debates about its violation of human morals, especially among the religious. Choosing what type of babies we want as if shopping for a toy doll is morally unjustifiable and goes against nature's free course. When we trade away organs from our body as if they are mere goods that can be thrown away we are devaluing human lives. Hence, science is closely linked and cannot be separated ethical concerns. The debate about euthanasia has been around for decades without a proper conclusion to the matter. However, countries like Norway have taken upon themselves to legalise it in their own country with close monitoring of its usage. People who accept euthanasia believe that it is cruel to let a deathly ill and in pain patient to continue suffering when there is a way to let him or her die painlessly and hence, end the suffering. Those with religious beliefs, though, argue that we
Are Reason and Emotion Equally Necessary in Justifying Moral Decisions? As human beings, we possess a conscience that distinguishes us from all other animal species. It is because of this conscience that humans are able to make 'moral decisions'. How do we know right from wrong? And, equipped with this knowledge, how do we justify the moral decisions we make? The ethical principles that we carry allow us to make the distinction and justify our moral decisions. Many such sets of principles have been developed by philosophers and theologians over time. There are four major theories of conduct: religious, self-interest, universal-law, and utilitarian.1 This paper will analyze the roles that reason and emotion play in justifying moral decisions in the context of each of the aforementioned ethical theories in an attempt to respond to the prescribed title. The question, of course, is whether emotion and reason are equally necessary. The focus of this essay will be on whether reason or emotion is sufficient unto itself or mutually dependent on each other when justifying moral decisions. Justification in this case involves providing explanations or proof for why a decision is ethically right. This wording suggests that reason is an essential part of the process as reason determines how we apply moral principles to the justification process by providing a rationale. Logic is used to
The progression of knowledge in the area of science relies on scientists' utilization of a process called the scientific method.
The progression of knowledge in the area of science relies on scientists' utilization of a process called the scientific method. Cause and effect relationships of the variables used in the experiments exist as an essential and imperative attribute to the meaning of this method. Secondly, inductive reasoning helps further the essence and main idea of the method. Thirdly, the gaining of scientific knowledge primarily with the least amount of bias and prejudice possible explains an important purpose of the method. The three essential aspects of the scientific method, which exist as cause and effect relationships of the variables used in experimentation, inductive reasoning, and the attaining of knowledge based upon the least amount of bias and prejudice, all contain a balance of strengths and weaknesses which distinguish precisely the meaning of the scientific method. The variables of scientific experiments connect through cause and effect relationships, which are based upon the deductive method. The deductive form of the scientific method can be described as an outdated method in which has been prevailed by the inductive method. All events result as a collection of other earlier events. Incidents such as split-second occurrences exemplify this lament. For example, the events before explosions of fireworks or the twisting of leaves are the actual causes and the split second
One definition of knowledge is true belief based on strong evidence. What makes evidence "strong" enough and how can this be established especially through perception?
One definition of knowledge is true belief based on strong evidence. What makes evidence "strong" enough and how can this be established especially through perception? Knowledge is created when one follows the method of reinforcing the reliability of pragmatic evidence. Regardless of what is deemed true and untrue in the world, people's opinions differ when distinguishing fact from fiction, and there have been endless debates when it comes to deciphering one from the other. Evidence is a vital element required to justify truth, as solid evidence cannot be argued against as it gives us facts through our empirical perceptions. The amount of evidence required to prove something is true also differs from topic to topic, with major topics requiring solid evidence include scientific investigations, historical assessments and judicial examinations. As human civilization has developed, so has the significance of evidence as our view of the world has acquired a more scientific view rather than an empirical view of judging something on how it appears to be. Using evidence as a strong basis of eliminating fallacious perceptions is also affected when taking into account the type of evidence which is at hand. People have debated where to mark the line between valuable and unreliable truth since the truth seekers of the earliest times to the present day. Personal knowledge is
Can a machine know? Seun Fashoranti Mr. Rodney TOK June 2007 Halifax Grammar School Is it possible for a machine to possess knowledge? To answer such a question two things must be known, what is the definition of a machine, can and knowledge? The scientific definition of a machine is a device that transmits or alters energy. A machine can be seen as a tool that performs commands. There are simple machines such as pulleys and levers and complex machines such as computers and robots. Can is defined as the ability to do things. Knowledge is defined as justified true belief. In this essay I will attempt to find out if a machine can truly have justified belief. I believe that humans have always been curious about how things work, which has allowed us to make such advances to in both science and technology. With movies such as The Matrix and I-Robot people have begun to wonder if a machine can have true knowledge. It has been argued that a machine does not know anything simply because it can not break away from its commands. A machine such as a computer, which can be found in business, homes and schools, only has memory and it performs its commands in which we give it. The computer can not break away from this programming so people jump to the conclusion that a machine can not think. They suggest that the ability to know something would involve awareness and consciousness,
The Human Sciences Prompt: In what ways might the beliefs of human scientists influence their conclusions? "Human behavior makes most sense when it is explained in terms of beliefs and desires, not in terms of volts and grams" (Steven Pinker, 1954-). As Pinker correctly said, humans are characterized by their beliefs and opinions. Many people say that they try to and succeed in maintaining an unprejudiced outlook on daily life. However, in the attempt of being unbiased with their beliefs and conclusions, all humans fail dismally. All things that reside in a person's mind are subjective, and thus loaded with belief. According to the Oxford School Dictionary, a belief is "a view or judgment of something not necessarily based on fact or knowledge", and a bias is "prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair". If we accept these definitions to be true, then it concludes that it is impossible to have a belief that is unbiased. If one believes something, one has made a judgment of that thing, and thus is biased by that judgment. A belief is, by its very definition, a bias. A person may not have a specific bias for or against an issue, but he or she does have several previously formed beliefs that will lead to the formation of an opinion on that issue. Human scientists are no different. Frequently,