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International Baccalaureate: World Literature

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  • Peer Reviewed essays 10
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  1. Peer reviewed

    Critical Analysis of After Apple Picking by Robert Frost

    5 star(s)

    I shall try to give my own: The name of the poem itself is intriguing and somewhat ominous. The decision to call it "After Apple Picking" is telling. The use of the term after conveys a sense of ambiguity and finality- it refers to an obscure period after a definite action. The poem is thus set up as an ambiguous one. Furthermore, the "apple" is introduced as a principal image in the poem. Thus readers are led to visualize the consequences of apple picking and to anticipate the metaphorical allusion of "Apple Picking", readied for the ambiguity of the indeterminate "After".

    • Word count: 2663
  2. "Lord of the Flies" and "Escape from Saddam": the Many Roads to Freedom

    So we've got to decide if this is an island" (Golding, 23). Through Ralph's words, it is evident that the boys are completely unaware of the location of the island, or what dangers it can possibly hold. On the other hand, in Escape from Saddam, Lewis Alsamari travels through Iraq and other countries such as England, Jordan, and Malaysia, and also through the desert. When comparing the island on which the boys were stranded to the desert and all the countries Lewis was forced to cross in order to get to England, it is evident that those places are unknown for the characters.

    • Word count: 2278
  3. In The Road, the boy, a kid with innocence and the father are moving towards the ocean to find good guys. Throughout their journey they go through challenging events that challenges their morals and respect for other people.

    This goes back to the concept of carrying that people who are carrying the fire have a good heart and respect for other people, while the bad guys, the cannibals are the people who steal, eat people, lie and give up. The boy in this case, realizes who the bad guys are; also realizes that they are not bad guys. "[The Man]: Listen, we have to talk. That man back there... There's not many good guys left, that's all. We have to watch out for the bad guys. We have to just... keep carrying the fire. [The Boy]: What fire?

    • Word count: 2580
  4. A Comparison of Isolationism in The Metamorphosis and Paradise of the Blind. A Comparison of Two Passages from The House of the Spirits

    Being Jewish would be alienating enough, but in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the separation from society is heightened. Furthermore, Kafka's relationship with his father matches the relationship between Gregor and his father, since both are disapproving and resentful. Kafka's father never respects the works of his son, and the father disapproves of his son's desire to become a writer rather than something more "angible. Kafka's authoritative and demanding father mirrors Gregor Samsa's father. Both deny acceptance to their sons because of their jobs, which Kafka shows in the novella by not having the family bail themselves out of the debt, and instead allowing Gregor to work the debt off as a traveling salesman.

    • Word count: 2757
  5. How does Macbeths portrayal change throughout the play?

    Shakespeare creates a hero who eventually falls, in order to create a tragedy, as the audience sympathizes with his character. Macbeth finally makes his appearance in Act I scence iii, as he comes across the three witches. This is where Macbeth finds out that he will become the Thane of Cawdor, but he also discovers that he will become king. "You shall be king./And thane of Cawdor too:when it not so?" (I,iii,86-87). Macbeth is initially satisfied with the idea of becoming Thane, but once the witches tell Macbeth that he will become king, this sparks the initial change within Macbeth.

    • Word count: 2534
  6. Toni Morrison's novel, "Sula", has been hailed by several critics as a remarkable expression of the feminist ideology. To accurately understand this novel, it is necessary to focus on symbols used throughout.

    Birds are everywhere in Sula, and they are often associated with specific characters. When we meet Rochelle, she wears a "canary-yellow dress" and has the "glare of a canary" (40) (41). And we already know that a "plague of robins" (1) arrives in Medallion just before Sula does. Birds invoke the idea of flight, which makes sense when we consider that Cecile and Sula both flee at some point in the story. And robins are often associated with the spring, the season of rebirth and growth.

    • Word count: 2393
  7. Contrasting the straight forward realist drama style of "A Doll's House" by Henrik Ibsen with the epistolary novel style of "So Long a Letter" by Mariama Ba in revealing the inner feelings and thoughts of the characters in their stories.

    The only penetration into the inner world of women, depicting her in pieces of art as strong and rebellious personality who cannot tolerate the injustice and prejudices of contemporary family life, was revolution in itself then. That is why, although these works are written in different parts of the world, belong to different cultures, historical backgrounds and religious traditions, even different genres, they are very common in revealing the inner feelings of their women characters. These convergences and divergences will be further studied in our research.

    • Word count: 2421
  8. How are the plot, point of view, tone, setting, and theme of the First Confession written by Frank OConnor?

    The analysis begins with subject of situation: once that is identified to formulate a thematic statement about work. b. The test of statement, if the statement of theme leaves certain elements or detail unexplained, or if those elements and details fail to confirm our statement, so the work is flawed and not successful in the identification. c. The exploration of author's biography and autography. The researcher can get it from letters, journals, notebooks, and critical writings, because is it can tell us a great deal about the author, times in which he lived and wrote, and the relationship between the

    • Word count: 2683
  9. Gusev Analysis. Chekov brings up two ordinary characters that are suffering under the tyranny which was ruling the country that time. Gusev and Pavel Ivanitch clearly demonstrate human suffering and injustice.

    (C, Jack) Theme Although Russia was never colonized the author, Chekov brings up two ordinary characters that are suffering under the tyranny which was ruling the country that time. Gusev and Pavel Ivanitch clearly demonstrate human suffering and injustice that citizens were undergoing. Especially Gusev represents peasants who were on the edge of the society suffering from many distresses and Pavel Ivanitch represents the educated and suppressed middle class. He is a symbol of people who were seeking to stand against so called tyranny and hypocrisy.

    • Word count: 2955
  10. In feminist writing, numerous techniques are employed in order to gain liberation from many stereotypical representations of women in their society. Anne Sexton uses the strategy of rewriting fairy tales, which I find most ingenious.

    I myself am a victim, deeply influenced by the representation of women in the male-oriented literature I grew up with, which has ingrained versions of the ideal feminine goals, aspirations, and appearance in me. They are to be beautiful like Snow White, and to be married and spend my life relaxing in a safe household, like Cinderella. This is precisely why I chose Sexton's "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" and "Cinderella" to discuss, to show that they insidiously influence our perception of males and females.

    • Word count: 2944
  11. A Farewell to Arms - plot outline

    Valentini who agrees to operate him immediately. Henry learns happily that Catherine has been transferred to the hospital that he is staying. During the following months, his relationship with Catherine improves.Its no longer a simple relationship, their love becomes powerful and real. When Henry's damaged leg has healed, the army gave him three weeks to him to return to the front.. He tries to plan a trip with Catherine, who reveals to him that she is pregnant. The following day, Henry argued with Miss Van Campen.She caught him with empty bottles and accused him of trying to avoid his duty

    • Word count: 2248
  12. In the novel Heroes, Robert Cormier attempts to deconstruct the rationale we all have about what defines the archetypal hero. The novel touches on whether or not an evil deed negates many good deeds and if an action, though not performed out of perceived

    Robert Cormier introduces the character of Francis Cassavant by having him give a description of his physical appearance. Francis describes, with stark clarity his disfigured face; when making reference to his outward appearance he does so in a completely factual manner, 'Oh I have eyes because I can see and ear drums because I can hear but no ears to speak of, just dangling bits of flesh.' The description appears to be laced with flippant undertones, giving the reader a brief glimpse into the psyche of Francis; he does not recollect his appearance with allusions to bitterness or self pity.

    • Word count: 2796
  13. In what ways do the actions of Meursault and Firdaus demonstrate their resistance against the oppression of social hegemony in The Outsider by Albert Camus and Women at Point Zero by Nawal El Saadawi?

    Firdaus comes to realize that she has become a prisoner of the patriarchal institution of marriage. In response to such patriarchal intimidation she escapes from the man's house. Not only is this a clear act of resistance against the patriarchal system, it is also symbolizes Firdaus' awakening to the realization of women's plight in Egyptian society and that the source of her physical oppression stems from men's' l**t of her physical body. Firdaus liberation is evidenced in several statements she makes about her own forced marriage, and the oppression of marriage in general.

    • Word count: 2243
  14. My Last Duchess. The Last Duchess is a dramatic monologue written by Robert Browning in an Iambic pentameter.

    He finally comes to one of his most prized collection: a painting of his late duchess. The extensive use of personal pronouns in the stanza clearly depicts the Duke's inexorable possessiveness over his Duchess, as shown in the line "Since none puts by the curtain I have drawn for you, but I" (Line 9-10, Robert Browning). The duke over complicates his duchess, and looks way too deep for a certain sense of absolution for his wife's ubiquitous courtesy and joy. He doesn't quite understand that she is ignorant to social status, and the consequences of her actions.

    • Word count: 2185
  15. Mending Wall by Robert Frost. Given the use of enjambment and blank verse in Mending Wall, I shall adopt a linear analysis of the poem in order to trace the evolving mindset of the speaker as the poem progresses.

    From lines 28 to 42, the speaker develops a contentiousness against his neighbour, elucidating the personal differences that exist between them, ironically revealing the need for both characters to reconcile and mend fences, or in this case, the wall. - As the poem progresses, there is increasing tension between the speaker and his neighbour as the speaker becomes increasingly aware of the differences in mindset between them. It is the speaker's very own contention against the unpragmatic existence of the wall that places him in opposition to his conservative neighbour, ironically confining the speaker himself inside of his own beliefs, rendering him just as inflexible and unchanging as his "old stone savage" neighbour.

    • Word count: 2942
  16. I will be examining two poems, The History Teacher by Billy Collins and The the impotence of proofreading by Taylor Mali.

    However, words too familiar, or too remote, defeat the purpose of the poet, Samuel Johnson said. Words are not bad or good in themselves, but only by virtue of their placing in a line in a poem. The arrangement or juxtaposition of words creates its own poetic diction and reflects society just as much as everything else in the arts. Today, I will focus on diction used in the present society and how it outstandingly reflects some of the difficulties in our world. (Body) Today, I will be examining two poems, "The History Teacher" by Billy Collins and "The the impotence of proofreading" by Taylor Mali.

    • Word count: 2087
  17. Romanticism essay. Romanticism was a movement in the fine arts and literature that became popular in the late 1700s and continued through most of the 1800s. It was a revolt against the classicism belief system that was previously known.

    The city, once valued so highly was now seen as a hub of corruption and art being used as a means of free expression rather than imitation. Romanticism was a movement in the fine arts and literature that became popular in the late 1700s and continued through most of the 1800s. It was a revolt against the classicism belief system that was previously known. Romantic writers rejected what they considered to be the excessive rationalism and lifeless literary forms of previous periods and emphasized emotions and the imagination and over logical order.

    • Word count: 2703
  18. Childhood obesity

    I will show a clear understanding of the issue chosen by looking at both view points (adult and children), this will give me a balanced view and not a bias one. I shall also then produce an overall conclusion about my investigation and evaluate the quality of my findings too. Issue Childhood obesity has nowadays become a serious health matter world wide. "Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual's ideal body weight.

    • Word count: 2053
  19. La introspeccin en Siddhartha

    Durante su estancia con los Samanas4, Siddhartha aprendi� a no poseer sentimientos y a trav�s de la meditaci�n consigui� no sentir dolor, hambre, sed o cansancio. Deseaba desprenderse de su "Yo interior" a trav�s del ensimismamiento y la despersonalizaci�n, siendo as� un simple cuerpo. "S�lo una meta se perfilaba ante Siddhartha: quedarse vac�o, despojarse de su sed, de sus deseos, de sus sue�os, de sus penas y alegr�as. Deseaba morir para s� mismo, no ser m�s �l, hallar paz y tranquilidad en su coraz�n vac�o, permanecer abierto al milagro despersonalizando el pensamiento."

    • Word count: 2955
  20. What is Spiritual Intelligence? What might we learn from Heinrich Harrer's story to help us become more spiritually intelligent?

    'To find your own way is to follow your bliss. This involves analysis, watching yourself and seeing where the real deep bliss is - - - not the quick little excitement, but the real, deep life-filling bliss.' -Joseph Campbell I think this quote is the perfect wording for becoming spiritually intelligent, it is saying that once you find that ever-lasting 'happy state', then you are spiritually intelligent. The 'happy' state, of which you find yourself in, is not a quick burst of joy, or a 'high' moment, but a complete mental inner peace.

    • Word count: 2798
  21. A comparison of the environment reflecting the protagonists decline in Thomas Manns Death in Venice and Ibsens Ghosts.

    Furthermore, even though he notices a storm stirring, he does not do anything to avoid it. This suggests the decadence and heat of Venice has influenced him, reflecting his loss of control over his restraint and eventually, to his decline. In contrast, Ghosts is continually shrouded in cold and dull weather. When Death in Venice does have cold weather, it is in the beginning of the novella, in Munich, when a stormy sky is brewing, signalling the tragedy to come. However, Ghosts continues to have a veil of rain and mist, rather than frightening storms. It has a more subtle suggestion of reflecting the stifling society and its conventions that Mrs Alving despises.

    • Word count: 2301
  22. Catcher in the Rye Oral presentation

    It made me feel better. It made me feel not so depressed any more". At this point, the title has no meaning to us. Whereas In chapter 22 we get to see the actual connection between Holden and the title. When asked, by Phoebe, what he wants to do in the future, Holden responds: "I keep picturing all these little kids playing some game in this big field of rye and all. Thousands of little kids, and nobody's around - nobody big, I mean except me. And I'm standing on the edge of some crazy cliff.

    • Word count: 2305
  23. Las obras Romeo y Julieta de William Shakespeare y Una Casa de Muecas de Henrik Ibsen, tienen mucho en comn. Ya que se puede ver la ceguera, de los antagonistas frente a lo que acontece a los protagonistas de Romeo y Julieta y Una Casa de Muecas.

    Este fragmento nos ayuda a entender mejor: "Montesco. �Capuleto, Villano! ... �No me sujetes! �Su�ltame! -"1 podemos ver como le dice villano, esto demuestra el odio que hay entre las familias. Esto demuestra la ignorancia que tienen entre las dos familias ya que no pueden aceptar la realidad y por eso crean todo el conflicto. Por otro lado, en Una Casa de Mu�ecas, la ceguera es producto de la aceptaci�n de los prejuicios de la �poca ya que eso le impide a Helmer aceptar y comprender a su mujer.

    • Word count: 2153
  24. I will be focusing on the significance of the two protagonists from two different fiction texts which are Washington square by Henry James and The Ballad of the Sad Caf by Carson McCullers. Both novels have similarities such as the two female protagonis

    An productive writer, in addition to his voluminous works of fiction he published articles and books of travel writing, biography, autobiography, and criticism, and wrote plays, some of which were performed during his lifetime with moderate success. His theatrical work is thought to have profoundly influenced his later novels and tales. Henry James had a massive success in English literature. The novel is about a female protagonist called Catherine who falls in love with a man who only is interested in her fortune.

    • Word count: 2261
  25. In my opinion, Henry Jamess work The Turn of The Screw and William Faulkners As I Lay Dying have different qualities in terms of structure though having very few similarities.

    In my paper I will try to show you how narrative structures of these two books are different and how narration affects reader's understanding of events and characters of the story. First of all it should be known Faulkner makes a revolutionary attempt in novel style. As a technique stream of consciousness is introduced to American Literature. Faulkner is not the first person using this structure yet he is the first in American Literature so that's why not many critics appreciates his works.

    • Word count: 2018

"The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page"

-St. Augustine

If you loved Crime and Punishment, and your favourite books tend to be those that transport you to faraway places, then you'll probably enjoy the world literature component of IB English Literature. The course teaches you to analyse literary works from many different time periods and cultures, so you'll get the chance to read translated literature alongside English literature.

To do well, you'll need to be able to construct complicated literary arguments in writing. If you would like some practice first, study Marked by Teachers collection of student-submitted IB world literature essays. The teacher-annotated papers will give you all the tools you need to earn top marks: you'll soon see the difference in your writing.

Students who excel in this course should consider studying English literature or a modern foreign language at the university level. When applying to these courses, having good marks in higher level English will be very helpful indeed.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Disgrace. Compare and contrast David and Lucys reaction to the attack in chapters 12 to 14

    "To conclude I would say that David and Lucy's reaction to the attacks could not contrast more. Where David appeared to be scared and Lucy put on the brave front, David was the one who was strong for them both, going to the market etc, whereas Lucy was finding life after the attack very difficult, 'her thumb in her mouth like a child.' However, Lucy does not want the attack to be known to the public, she wants to move on, forget the past, but David wanted revenge on the attackers. Lucy's attitude towards the attack suggests that she felt guilty for the mistreatment of blacks and felt this was her punishment, whereas David's beliefs that change shouldn't happen were stressed by the attack."

  • To what extent does Ibsens Hedda Gabler update the conventions of Greek tragedy that can be found in Euripides Medea?

    "To conclude, throughout this essay I have attempted to show and explain how Ibsen, in his play Hedda Gabler, has updated and twisted the conventions of Greek tragedy that can be found within Euripides' classic tragedy Medea. I have examined how the death of Hedda, in particular the location and reaction to it, utilises and manipulates convention to create drama and enable the audience to draw their own conclusion from the action. The nature of the Thespian Loevborg, and how Hedda lives through him, shows how Medea's character has been twisted and changed, that Hedda is no longer seeking revenge and equality, in the perhaps two dimensional Euripidean world that Medea inhabits, but also control and success. I believe that there are many ways in which Ibsen has updated the conventions of Greek tragedy, and that it is the use of farce throughout that presents this text as a truly modernised Greek tragedy. 1 Ibsen, Henrick, Hedda Gabler, Methuen Drama Student Editions, 2002 Methuen Publishing Ltd. P. 76. 2 Hedda Gabler, p. 99 3 Euripides, Medea, Cambridge University Press 1999, l.840 4 Hedda Gabler, p. 45 5 Medea l.298 6 Hedda Gabler, p. 37 7 Hedda Gabler, p. 104 8 Medea, l. 88 9 Hedda Gabler, p. 64 10 Medea, l. 398 11 Hedda Gabler p. 95 12 Hedda Gabler p. 99 C. Wild"

  • Who do you think is responsible for Gregor's fate? To what extent do you think he is responsible?

    "Mr. Samsa lacks the qualities of a caring father, which is the central reason for Gregor's death. With enormous responsibilities at a young age, his life even before the metamorphosis is the life of a beetle. Much of this has a lot of to do with Kafka's strained relationship with his own father, who he describes as "huge, selfish, (and an) overbearing businessman," in his Letter to his father. Although this is not the reason why Kafka died, it sure is the reason why Gregor dies."

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