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International Baccalaureate: World Literature

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  1. Two poems that have captured the essence of emotional survival are Katrina by Bruce Dawe and A Soldiers Farewell to his Son by Sapper Bert Beros. Although they cover the notion of physical survival, both poems show the emotional survival required when

    The poem Katrina, written by Bruce Dawe for his two-month-old daughter, represents survival in its most basic form, literally, physically surviving. However, it is also shown strongly through the parents' feeling that their own emotional survival is threatened. In this poem, there is evidence of endurance because the parents will always live with the 'scars' of this terrible time of their lives. This is exaggerated through the fact that the baby has a twin brother who is perfectly healthy which is emphasised in the line "Your twin brother's two-month-old vigour hurts us."

    • Word count: 2031
  2. Comparative Essay Heart of Darkness vs Apocalyspe Now

    In Heart of Darkness, the characters' choices are between savagery and death by disease. All men exposed to the jungle unequivocally fall to one fate or the other. The Eldorado Exploring Expedition is an example of what happens to those who adapt to the savage climate; they lose their moral code and turn evil. The group is described by the protagonist Marlow as having "no moral purpose at the back of it than there is burglars breaking into a safe" (Conrad, 27). This observation that Marlow makes is expressed as an analogy; it is read as the expedition trying to find ivory is analogous to burglars breaking into a safe in terms of moral purpose.

    • Word count: 2179
  3. In the prose extract, Feet September 1948, Seamus Deane utilizes various techniques and literary features in his diction to depict the feelings and thoughts of the narrator (main character).

    Deane sometimes uses an elevated/technical vocabulary intended for an educated audience, such as when he lists the various medical terms of "...diphtheria, scarlet fever or scarlatina, rubella, polio, influenza..." (line19-20), or when he describes the oil dripping down his skin to corrugate (meaning: to fold or be folded into alternate furrows and ridges - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/corrugate) on his wrist. Overall the diction can still be considered relatively simple and casual. Thus, the narrative technique of the passage contributes to the depiction and understanding of the narrator's feelings and thoughts.

    • Word count: 2342
  4. Duffy and Donne and their portrayal of the loss of identity

    Donne's poetry, in particular his religious poetry, still illustrated a Catholic mind's eye, and the sense of remorse he felt for deserting his religious conviction is quite pervasive and without doubt seen in the "Holy Sonnet IV". It can be observed that the reader cannot find a satisfying conclusion to any single sonnet; resolution is apparent only when one reads the entire sonnet sequence. Duffy, on the other hand, was born in 1955 in Scotland. Her family moved to Stafford, England when she was six years old.

    • Word count: 2124
  5. Free essay

    How is morality used to promote justice in Antigone and The Visit?

    Evidence Text 2 "Madam Zachanassian: you forget this is Europe. You forget, we are not savages. In the name of all citizens of Guellen, I reject your offer; and I reject it in the name of humanity. We would rather have poverty than blood on our hands." (page 39) Point 2 In "Antigone", the characters argue over whether divine or state law should be respected applied and established. Nonetheless, in "The Visit" the characters argue whether state or personal notion of justice should be respected. Evidence Text 1 You'll never bury that body in the grave, Not even if Zeus's eagles rip the corpse And wing their rotten pickings off to the throne of god!

    • Word count: 2380
  6. Free essay

    The use of symbolism to convey protagonists confinement in a Doll's House and Death and the Maiden

    As mentioned before, the own title of the play is another important symbol in terms of protagonist confinement because it illustrates once again the situation in which Nora lives, a situation in which it is clearly being control by her own husband who treats her like a child by persuading her with money. "Come, come my little skylark must not drop her wings. What is this! Is my little squirrel out of temper?" (Act I, pg. 3) Ibsen is showing us how Nora is his mascot as he treats her like a little child with the use of animal characteristics.

    • Word count: 2846
  7. English Wlit: Antigone and Visit

    The political backdrop of Antigone is the French Resistance Movement. The entire play is an allegorical reference to this movement. Antigone's rebellious act against Creon brings out the gender conflict, an undercurrent running throughout this play and is meant to inspire the movement to revolt against the n**i occupation in France. J.L Styan states that "Anouilh was a dramatist before he was a politician, and it was a matter of pure chance that Antigone met the need for an anti-n**i play"2. However the main ideological underpinning behind Miss Julie is the theory of Social Darwinism3 which brings out the concept of Natural Selection within civilized society as well.

    • Word count: 2233
  8. The arras in Shakespeare. From the tiny glimpse of Shakespearean plays I have studied I have seen continuous occurrences of the arras devise, where it has been used in many different ways to cause many different effects. In all the arrases that occurre

    Once again this character hides in a moving arras, and passes right under the person they are hiding from's nose. Shakespeare can use this form of the physical arras to display and enhance humour and tragedy and in all of the plays I have studied this technique has occurred. However, the play that is the most dependent on the arras shaping the genre is The Merry Wives of Windsor, where the comedy solely relies on the humour being formed when Falstaff tries unsuccessfully to use the arras device.

    • Word count: 2023
  9. THINGS FALL APART - table of Ibo phrases and proverbs

    Inyanga Showing off Obiageli was bragging about her pot. Ilo The village playground. Central hub of all activities like ceremonies and wrestling matches. IT was as old as the village itself - it marked the village's age and existence. Ekwe A musical instrument - a drum made out of wood. Used as a medium of communication and expression. It was used to inform clansmen about important events and meetings and was also played to grieve an elder's death. Ogbanje A child who repeatedly dies and returns to its mother to be re-born.

    • Word count: 2392
  10. the portrayal of women in lysistrata

    In fact, women have great trouble following Lysistrata's plan of "s*x- starvation"; they have the need for s*x as much as men do, to the point where Lysistrata has restrain them from escaping to their husbands: "I just can't keep them to their vow of abstinence any longer. They are deserting."(p. 210). The main difference between men and women's s****l desires is not even that women could live without s*x, but the fact that they were commanded by the strong Lysistrata, who maintained the women's ideals present throughout the play.

    • Word count: 2267
  11. World Literature 1 - Clouds of Discontent in Crime and Punishment(TM) and Siddhartha(TM)

    'Crime and Punishment' is set in Russia in the 1860s when Russia was undergoing industrialization. People seemed to be earning more money and leading materially comfortable lives. While this was only true for a small minority, the majority- people like Raskolnikov-led lives of dire poverty. Characteristic of a country undergoing industrialization, rural population migrated to cities in search of comfortable lives. This resulted in the formation of slums and fetid neighbourhoods. Raskolnikov lived in one such neighbourhood. The reader is told that "The heat in the streets was stifling...The reeking fumes of the dram-shops... and the tipsy men to be seen at every point..., completed the repulsive character of the scene"4 Dostoyevsky's diction gives the reader an insight into Raskolnikov's poverty.

    • Word count: 2111
  12. World Literature 2 (c)-Commentary on an extract

    Throughout the course of the novel, the reader fails to understand the principles guiding Meursault's actions. To the ordinary reader, there were no discernable reasons for Meursault's behaviour. As Sartre puts it "It [Meursault's consciousness] has been made so as to be transparent to things and opaque to meanings."3 There were no revelations of any beliefs that seem to be directing him. The chosen passage finally offers the reader an insight into Meursault's beliefs. The reader can finally understand Meursault's character and the reasons for his seemingly asocial behaviour. Meursault's emotions and feelings are also revealed which were relatively absent (except for some random references)

    • Word count: 2285
  13. George Orwell

    Orwell's Newspeak, the ultra-political new language introduced in Nineteen Eighty-Four, does precisely that: it facilitates deception and manipulation, and its purpose is to restrict understanding of the real world. Chilton also suggests that a corollary to this is that "each post-Babel language [becomes] a closed system containing its own untranslatable view of the world" (2). Certainly, the ultimate aim of Newspeak is to enclose people in an orthodox pseudo-reality and isolate them from the real world. Whereas people generally strive to expand their lexicon, the government in Nineteen Eighty-Four actually aims to cut back the Newspeak vocabulary.

    • Word count: 2606
  14. Vietnam war

    In 1950 the French asked the USA for some kind of support, basically they wanted some military might behind them because the communist threat was too large for them alone. By 1953 it was found that the USA was paying 70% of the costs ($300,000,00). It was in the USA's interest to stop areas in the Far East falling under the influence of communism, as the Cold War was at its peak late in the 1940s- early 1950s, which meant another possible Korea in the eyes of the US government.

    • Word count: 2450
  15. Free essay

    Comparing Catcher in the Rye and the Bell Jar

    The setting of both stories was in the 1950s America. The society in the 1950s had conventional beliefs and expectations of a woman's role and identity, which was to get married and have children. Esther was pulled between her desire to write poetry and her other desire to start a family. Her intelligence earned her scholarships, prizes, amazing opportunities and respect, but her classmates mocked her studiousness and only began to show respect when she started dating a handsome and liked boy.

    • Word count: 2498
  16. Pedro Pramo

    El color de la tierra, el olor de la alfalfa y del pan. Un pueblo huele a miel derramada." Mediante una sucesi�n de im�genes sensoriales logra enfatizar la energ�a y viveza que alguna vez ti�� las calles del pueblo de Comala. A su vez puede notarse con el tipo de frases vivas que utiliza, que en su mayor�a refieren a la felicidad y a la vida, tales como "gotas brillantes", "irisaba todo de colores". Es notorio que el autor logra contrastar en un mismo sitio la alegr�a del vivir, y por otro lado el dolor del pecado y la muerte,

    • Word count: 2290
  17. Phillip K. d**k Essay

    He was deeply affected psychologically by her death in many ways. Her death may have brought him to believe that everyone is (or should be treated) equal. He very much would have liked her to have the same opportunity of life as he did. When d**k was only six years old, his parents got divorced. He spent a while moving about the country before settling in Berkeley, California with his mother. During his childhood, d**k had many problems partially because of the separation of his parents and lack of attention from his mother.

    • Word count: 2306
  18. William Trevors short stories explore several themes; faded love, hopeless marriage, as well as alienation and loneliness. By focusing on two of these short stories, The Distant Past, and In Isfahan, these themes that usually set a mood of melancholy w

    The scene setting used by Trevor instantly registers, symbolically with the reader able to identify the Middletons declining fortunes with the decline of the British Empire. This symbolism is cleverly used within the story to reinforce the message that the past still dominates the present, especially within the context of Irish life. Although the Middletons, both brother and sister are portrayed as harmless and peculiar, this has an odd appeal that endears the family to the local catholic residents. This poignant inconclusiveness of being loyal to Ireland's colonial past highlights the curious relationship the Middeltons nostalgia and dual identity has

    • Word count: 2643
  19. Oedipus the King, Cyrano de Bergerac and Night all discuss the themes of fear, love and the limits of the free will, however, the themes are incorporated in a variety of different ways in each of these pieces, creating powerful emotions

    "Oedipus the King", "Cyrano de Bergerac" and "Night" all discuss the themes of fear, love and the limits of the free will, however, the themes are incorporated in a variety of different ways in each of these pieces, creating powerful emotions and a strong feeling of empathy in the reader. Fear is one of the most commonly used themes in literature because the audience can easily identify with the characters since everyone at sometime has experienced this intense emotion and this is also one of the reasons for which all of these pieces of World Literature have used and included the theme of fear through out their stories.

    • Word count: 2036
  20. Walkabout This story is about two children who are stranded in the Australian outback after a plane crash

    'It was very different with the Aboriginal way of life. He knew what reality was. Their lives were unbelievably simple compared to the aborigine. They had no homes, no crops, no clothes, no possessions. The few things they had they shared: food and wives; children and laughter; tears, hunger and thirst.' Their whole lives are a battle against death. Death being the spirit of death, 'Keeping him at bay was the Aboriginals' fulltime job.' This seems very strange to us and was certainly something Mary and Peter did not understand.

    • Word count: 2597
  21. The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World by Gabriel Garcia Marquez and The Drowned Giant by J.G. Ballard are both short stories written with similar plots but explore extremely different themes. In this essay I am going to compare the theme, pl

    bringing 'colour' to their lives and making them realize how simple, plain and uncivilized they lived and gave them faith and hope and inspiration to a brighter future and a way to civilize themselves and their society. In contrast, in Ballard's story, the theme is completely different. A gigantic, enormous giant the size of a ship had appeared next to the city but also on the beach. The giant was much huger in size compared to Marquez's story, but he was never accepted into the society.

    • Word count: 2597
  22. Representation of slavery in 'Beloved' by Toni Morrison

    This is the opinion of Carol Rumens from a review in the Times Literary Supplement of October 1987: - 'Morrison increases our sense of outrage of slavery by describing the system, initially, not at its most brutal but at its most enlightened.' This quote further implies that slavery has always been regarded as a mistake of the past but the emphasis on its nature is given definition in 'Beloved'. Morrison's aim in doing this is her concern that slavery is in danger of becoming just a word, which has no clear meaning.

    • Word count: 2315
  23. r****m in African-American Poetry | Poetry Anthology Project

    E S? ________________ ?Africa? by Maya Angelou ?Song for a Dark Girl? by Langston Hughes ?On Being Brought from Africa to America? by Phillis Wheatley ?Yet Do I Marvel? by Countee Cullen ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ?Africa? by Maya Angelou ________________ Thus she had lain sugercane sweet deserts her hair golden her feet mountains her b*****s two Niles her tears. Thus she has lain Black through the years. Over the white seas rime white and cold brigands ungentled icicle bold took her young daughters sold her strong sons churched her with Jesus bled her with guns.

    • Word count: 2876
  24. The poem Two Hands, written by Jon Stallworty, is a piece of writing with a modern structure and a relatable, yet very personal theme.

    The poem was probably written, mainly for a personal purpose, as a relief perhaps. However, it is really relatable, despite its specificity. In fact, the speaker it is the author itself, as it is possible to see from the end of the 12th verse: ? All today remembering the one (?)?, and throughout the first person narration. This kind of narration enables us to have a more profound look to the emotions connected with the frustrating and almost sad situation, the words and way the speaker conveys the meaning has a stronger impact on the reader, than if it were in third person.

    • Word count: 2257
  25. The Stranger, Albert Camuss first novel, is a brilliantly crafted story and a portrayal of Camus absurdist world view

    For his offense and his different outlook on life that differentiates him from the society around him, Meursault is deemed a threat to society?s moral standard and sentenced to death. When he comes to accept the cruel, cold indifference of the world, and death he finds peace with himself and with the society that persecutes him. Camus creates an Absurd world through Meursault and outlines concepts of detachment, alienation and society, through the use of structure, perspective, motif of death and stream of consciousness.

    • Word count: 2031

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