Geography HL Essay: Examine the strategies used in the transfer of capital between core and peripheral areas. There are various strategies which are made use of when transferring capital between the core and peripheral areas. These are mainly loans and debt repayment, remittances, foreign direct investment and the repatriation of profits. Loans and debt repayment is used worldwide in which the developing countries collectively owe $2.3 trillion to foreign creditors. The advantages brought by such a transfer of capital between core and peripheral areas is the opportunity countries get to finance necessary resources in order to build up and develop themselves by improving their education and housing in Sub-Saharan Africa for example. The total money owed has however been cut due to the HIPC plan which reduced the 218$ billion owed to $180 billion. As a result of these loans and repayments, food, clothing, housing, medicines and medical care became cheaper and simultaneously, their quality improved since earlier times. This as a result makes it easier and better for LEDCs to afford such resources, benefiting their standard of living and development of their economy. The loans and debts still however need to be repaid, and as a result countries will need to pay interest on this and pay back the principal. Even bad loans will have to be repaid, and especially for LEDCs this can
Experiment to investigate the effect of different antibiotics on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis: Aim: To see which antibiotic (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Fusidic Acid, Oxacillin, Novobiocin, Penicillin, Streptomyan and Tetracycline) reacting with the Bacillus subtilis has the largest zone of inhibition in mm (+/- 0.5mm) and so which has the biggest effect on the bacteria. Introduction: Gram -positive bacteria are bacteria that are dark blue or violet when gram staining. Gram-positive organisms are able to keep the crystal violet stain because of a high amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. This makes up about 90% of the thick, more than 20 layers of peptidoglycan together. Gram-positive organisms normally do not have the outer membrane, whereas Gram-negative organisms do. Gram-positive bacteria include many well -known genera like Streptococcus and Bacillus. Most pathogenic bacteria in humans are Gram-positive organisms and these are used to manufacture antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis, also known as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus is a Gram- positive bacterium, which is mostly found in soil. Bacillus subtilis is not a human pathogen and it can contaminate food but rarely causes food poisoning. Bacillus subtilis spores can survive the extreme heat during cooking and Bacillus subtilis is responsible for causing a sticky, stringy consistency in spoiled bread
Death of a Salesman. Many symbols are included in the play. The tennis racquet, the seeds and the house are some of these symbols.
The American dream, a dream derived the ideals of life, liberty and happiness, is now merely defined in materialistic terms. Arthur Miller demonstrates how Willy's blind faith in the American dream turns into an obsession for success which destroys his life and almost that of his family. Miller communicates effectively with his audiences through the utilisation of literary techniques such as symbolism and motif. I shall begin by focusing on his use of symbolism and subsequently examine the use of motifs in the play. Many symbols are included in the play. The tennis racquet, the seeds and the house are some of these symbols. The tennis racquet which Willy observes is an obvious representation of Bernard's success and Biff's failure. Biff and Happy, who hope to make a fortune out of selling sports equipment, are revolving their lives around sport. Ironically, Bernard, who stood on the sidelines in high school while Biff played sports, now owns the tennis racquet. After spending a lifetime pursuing the unsuccessful American dream, Willy realises he has never left behind any accomplishments for his children in his name. The seeds represent the legacy that Willy will never leave with his family. "Oh, I'd better hurry. I've got to get some seeds. I've got to get some seeds, right away. Nothing's planted. I don't have a thing in the ground." (page 122) During this scene, we see
Geography Essay- Factors Affecting Tourism Describe the changes in the growth in tourism in recent decades. Explain the factors responsible for this. In the 1950s, there were 25.5 million of international tourist arrivals and mostly were Europeans, which were 16.8 million arrivals. However, in the 1990s, international tourist arrivals increased to 455.9 millions. The significant changes were 280.6 million arrivals were from middle-east and 57.7 million arrivals were from Asia-pacific. First of all, transportation is one of the major factors seriously affecting each country's tourism because countries without high efficiency of transportation, it would lower tourists preferences to visit a specific country. For instance, development of the High-speed rail industry in Europe attracts more tourists from Europe continent of even internationally because High-speed trains were also quite fast, which can travel more than 250km/h in average. And travelling by trains was relatively cheaper compared to travel by planes because roundtrip tickets from London to Paris in Euro star cost $1575.6 HKD. However, air roundtrip tickets from London to Paris cost $2484 HKD in British Airways. Secondly, development of infrastructure- both roads and airports in More Economic Developed Countries (MEDCs) and Less Economic Developed Countries (LEDCs) were improving, which allowed more large sizes of
Biology Lab Report Seed Germination By: John Abarshi (Figure One: Cress Seed Germination) Introduction This term, we embarked upon our first biology experiment. Recently, in class, we have been learning about plant reproduction. Amongst the vast amount of information pertaining to the topic of plant reproduction is germination. Germination is the process of sprouting, whereby seeds or spores sprout or emerge and begin to grow.   When a seed is germinating, certain factors affect its germination. It was our task to come up with two variables that could influence seed germination and to investigate this. After much contemplation and consideration, I managed to pinprick what factors I would like to investigate. I will thus investigate if altering the light and temperature of the cress seeds' environment will affect the germination. Research Question How do light and temperature affect the germination of a cress seed? Hypothesis If cress seeds are placed in a dark environment, then their germination will be negatively affected compared to cress seeds grown in a normal light environment because seeds If cress seeds are placed in an environment with excessive exposure to light, then their germination will be positively affected compared to cress seeds grown in a normal light environment because seeds If cress seeds are placed in a cold environment, then their
ARAL SEA CASE STUDY The Aral Sea in definition can be best described as a basin in Central Asia that is located between Kazakhstan, northern Karakalpakstansan and in a generous region of Uzbekistan which is in the South [Fig. 1]. This map accurately depicts the significance of the Aral Sea in a regional scale as there are only two countries bordering the sea as opposed to a cluster of countries (whereby the significance would be national) and thus only two countries with immediate contact with the basin. The Aral Sea was a creation made in the location where two major rivers in the name of Amu Darya and Syr Darya met. In previous years, The sea was declared as the fourth largest inland sea but has been steadily shrinking and drying up since the 1960's due to diversion of the Amu and Syr Darya as means of water supplements for Soviet Union irrigation projects. These drastic actions have impacted both the safety of the drinking water in the area as well as the health of the locals. In the year of 1981, the decision of the diversion of Amu and Syr Darya was officially declared by the Soviet Union as means of irrigation for the desert where the growth of rice, cotton, cereals and melons would be attempted. This decision was a branch in the plan of developing the cotton industry as becoming one of the most major exports. Even though this plan had clear success with Uzbekistan
Describe and explain how the improvement in transport over the last 50 years has increased the global interactions between countries.
Describe and explain how the improvement in transport over the last 50 years has increased the global interactions between countries (10 marks) Transportation is one of the main influences of the development of global interactions between countries. Over the years, transportation allows urban areas to expand, permit regional economic development and overcome the effect of distance -further developing universal communication. There are many forms of transport -road, rail, ocean, air and pipelines. In this essay, by comparing both ocean and air transportation and analysing the various advantages, we can see how the improvements in transport over the last 50 years has increased the global interactions between countries. First of all, although water transportation is considered to be quite expensive, however, it is fairly at a reasonable price as ocean shipping is able to bear more cargos than other forms of transport. The higher capacity enables more goods to be shipped at once which further improves trading activities, making it faster and more efficient. Besides that, free ports are available now in certain countries which attract more imports that can be manufactured into goods that are than exported without having to pay duties or tax. This allows more trading activities to take place without having to fuss over taxes and other additional payments. Moreover, more imports
The 1995 Kobe Earthquake and The 2005 Pakistan Earthquake A huge earthquake took place in Japan at 5:46am, on January 17th 1995. The earthquake had a local magnitude of 7.2, and lasted for about 20 seconds. The epic-center of this earthquake was less than 20km below Awaji-shima, an island near the city of Kobe, a port city. The earthquake occurred between convergent plate boundaries, the Eurasian Plate and Philippines Plate, and as a result of the collision of these two plates the pressure built up and then suddenly got released, and the Earthquake shockwaves traveled to Kobe. The Hanshin earthquake caused about 5,100 deaths, mostly in Kobe. Highways, roads, homes, railroads, ports and other infrastructures were destroyed, also trains on minor lines were derailed. Main water ways bursted and there were fires evolving everywhere. These caused disruption of traffic, affects on economy, water suspension, and disrupted heat and gas areas around Kobe. However, what caused such a severe damage of the city of one of the most highest earthquake-prepared countrys, was that the city of Kobe is close by water, therefore is on soft land. Secondly, the focus was relatively shallow. Engineering was another reason. A huge amount of the houses in Kobe were built before the development of strict seismic codes (1981). They had old wooden frames, heavy clay tiled roofs, and were closely
The effect of Pectinase concentration on the production of apple juice The aim of this experiment is to see the effect different Pectinase concentrations have on the production on apple juice. Pectinase is an enzyme which breaks down pectin, a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. This enzyme is mainly commercially used to speed up the process of fruit juice production as the cell walls of plants are broken down more quickly. Therefore by changing the Pectinase concentrations, the results may show the effects it may have on how much apple juice will be produced. Hypothesis: As the concentration of the Pectinase increases in concentration, there will be more apple juice produced. However, after a certain amount of Pectinase concentrate, the volume and intensity of apple juice produced would not increase anymore because there is a limit of active sites in the Pectinase for the pectin in the cell walls of the apple to react with and therefore the apple juice produced will not increase further. Null Hypothesis: As the concentration of the Pectinase increases there will be no change in the volume or intensity of apple juice produced. Variables: Independent - The concentration of Pectinase (1, 2, 3, 4, 5%) The different concentrations of enzyme will be used to determine whether or not they have an effect on the production of apple juice. By using a range of
The Roles of ATP ATP, or Adenosine triphosphate, is an organic chemical compound that has a strong chemical bond which acts as an energy fuel, it isn't a long term energy store as the bond is quite unstable so when ATP is made it is used almost immediately, when this bond is broken it releases chemical energy which can be used straight away for many functions, it is considered in biology to be the currency of life. This energy gets released when a phosphate is broken off, you can get a small energy release from one phosphate leaving the ATP; when one leaves you get ADP. The ADP can then be recharged back to being ATP in the mitochondria of our cells, using respiration; this is how we get energy from food. ATP can also give up bigger amounts of energy if it is needed, when it gives up two phosphates, leaving AMP. ATP has many roles because it is the primary source of energy in living things , we use it in our body to contract muscles for movement, for active transport, it even lights up fireflies, it powers almost every activity that goes on in our cells. As far as it is known every living thing uses ATP as its primary source of energy, from bacteria to plants. At any instant in time a cell in the human body can contain about one billion ATP molecules, but this amount is used up quite quickly and is normally recycled straight away in the mitochondria where chemiosmotic