How will ethical issues affect leadership in a business
Contemporary and Pervasive Issues "How will ethical issues affect leadership in a business?" Name: Lauren Canning Student no: 15010789 Date: 31/03/2009 Tutor: Christine Gilligan Word Count: 5671 In this essay I am going to discuss how ethical issues can affect leadership in a business. In order to answer this question the essay will start by giving a brief introduction into the two topics; leadership and business ethics. I will then aim to successfully link them by considering the argument of whether leaders should concern themselves with ethical issues or whether making as much money as possible should be their main consideration. Leadership has many different meanings and there have been numerous different classification systems used to define the dimensions of leadership. Infact as Stogdill (1974) pointed out, "there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it." One popular definition used for this subject is that "leadership may be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement"(Stogdill, 1974). This definition suggests that it is not a characteristic but is an event that takes place between a leader and his or her followers and that there are three aspects to leadership. Firstly, it involves influence in that
How successful was the Manchester Ship Canal before 1914
How successful was the Manchester Ship Canal before 1914? To understand why The Manchester Ship Canal could be considered successful before 1914, it must first be understood why Manchester needed another canal in the first place. The ship canal could be called a financial failure up to 1914 due to the escalating costs and rivalries between the Liverpool Docks and railway companies with Manchester itself. This essay will highlight the major points that led to the Manchester Ship canal becoming a success by 1914. During the 1800's there were several canals connecting Manchester to the surrounding area. From the Bridgwater canal, this was the first to be built to the Macclesfield canal one of the last to be built. They all connected Manchester to trade routes all over the country. Crucial to Manchester's success in the cotton trade was the import and export of cotton. The canals and later the railways that served Manchester and the surrounding area were crucial, bringing and taking goods by barge, to the docks at Liverpool. It was during the Great Depression in the late 1870s that things came to a head. During this worldwide depression, Manchester was going in to economic decline. Industries were failing, with factories and shops closing and a steady migration of people away from Manchester1. Like the Duke of Bridgwater before them, the local business men realised that the
The aim of this essay is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of combining the two methodologies, qualitative and quantitative, when designing research in relation to the study of drug use
What are the strengths and weaknesses of combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies when designing research? Relate your answer to the study of drug use in particular. The aim of this essay is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of combining the two methodologies, qualitative and quantitative, when designing research in relation to the study of drug use. Qualitative methods of research and data focus more on the context and integrity of the material and produce research findings that are not arrived at by statistical summary or analysis. The methods used in qualitative research include participant observation, intense interviewing and focus groups which provide researchers with in depth information, unlike quantitative method. Quantitative refers to studies whose findings are mainly the product of statistical summary and analysis. In criminological research the quantitative research methods used are generally surveys and questionnaires. The rise of drug use in recent decades has prompted more research into this area using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies not only to attempt to evaluate the extent of drug use in individual areas but also to seek to understand the reasons behind it. A great number of researchers are more frequently using a mixed method research design now to try and increase the credibility of their findings. Individually each
Dermatology and Microbiology - The Growth of Nails.
Dermatology and Microbiology a. The Growth of Nails The actual nail is made up of the nail body, nail root and the free edge and the main function of a nail is to protect the ends of your fingers and toes, and to help to grasp and manipulate small objects. Within the actual nail there are more parts that are needed to help in the production of nails, one of these parts is called the MATRIX. The diagram above shows where the matrix is situated inside the nail. The matrix is situated underneath the nail root and extends as far as the lunula. It is the most important part of the nail unit. The matrix is where the most work goes on, as this is where the start the nail develops from. The nail will grow outwards towards the tips of the fingers and toes. The nails will grow when the top layer of cells are transformed into nail cells by keratinisation. The cells within the matrix will be divided up, the upper ones will become thickened and toughened through the keratinisation process. As more cells are produced the old ones are pushed outwards and flattened, they then become transparent and form part of the nail plate. The matrix also determines the shape and thickness of a nail so the longer the matrix is the thicker the nail will be. If however the matrix is damaged it can result in temporary loss of the nail or permanent damage to the nail plate. The cells in
Does evidence support the argument that children are biologically programmed to learn language?
Does evidence support the argument that children are biologically "programmed" to learn language? Developmental and psycholinguistic theorists are constantly contrasting views on how children develop and acquire language. Some theorists believe that it is purely innate, or as Pinker (1994) suggest that it is an 'instinct'. Other theorists suggests that we acquire language through imitation, or operant conditioning Skinner,1957( as cited in Radford & Govier, 1995). Social interaction also has a great influence on language acquisition. There are many theorists who believe that language is biological. As humans, we are the only species to have a communication system which is extremely complex. (Elman, 1996, cited in MacWhinney, 1999). The Biological approach suggests that language is innate, that we are born with a specific type of genome which allows us to speak. Research has been carried out investigating the relationship into language and specific genes. The research has shown that although there is no specific genome for language, the interaction between different genes help participate in the production of language (Greenspan,1995, as cited in MacWhinney , 1999.) When discussing whether or not language is derived from a biological process, it is important to understand all the factors involved. The most comprehensible approach for language development is that of the
What causes Anorexia
What causes Anorexia? For people with anorexia, it really is true that one can never be too thin. Despite being dangerously underweight, anorexics see a fat person when they look in the mirror. What they don't see is the tremendous physical and emotional damage that self-starvation inflicts, so they continue to diet, fast, purge, and over-exercise. While people with anorexia often deny having a problem, the truth is that anorexia is a serious and potentially deadly eating disorder. Fortunately, recovery is possible. With proper treatment and support, you or someone you care about can break anorexia's self-destructive pattern and regain your health and happiness. What exactly is anorexia nervosa? An example; (Maria's Story) Seventeen-year-old Maria has been on one diet or another since she was in junior high. She recently lost 10 pounds from an already slender frame after becoming a strict vegetarian. Her parents are concerned about the weight loss, but Maria insists that she's just under stress at school. Meanwhile, her vegetarian diet is becoming stricter by the day. Maria obsessively counts calories, measures food portions, and weighs herself at least twice a day. She refuses to eat at restaurants, in the school cafeteria, or anywhere else in public, and she lives on salad dressed with vinegar, rice cakes, and sugar-free Jell-O. Maria also has a large stash of
Jodie and Mary were conjoined twins. On appeal, the Court of Appeal was asked to determine whetherit would be lawful for surgeons to operate on the pair to separate them.
Jodie and Mary were conjoined twins. On appeal, the Court of Appeal was asked to determine whether it would be lawful for surgeons to operate on the pair to separate them. The implications of separation were that M would certainly die within minutes and that J would most probably live. On the other hand, if the twins were not separated ultimately both would die within a matter of months. M's own heart and lungs were inadequate to sustain M's life. While joined to J, M survived only by relying on J's heart to pump the blood oxygenated by J through both twins' bodies. Sustaining both lives was imposing an excessive strain on J's heart. It was common ground that J's heart would fail within approximately 3-6 months. M's death would inevitably follow J's. On these facts, the Court of Appeal held that it would be lawful (though not required) for surgeons to carry out the operation. To the extent that any general proposition can be extracted from the decision, its gist seems to be that a defence of necessity can extend to lethal acts undertaken in order to negate a threat to life even where that threat is an innocent one. Hence, on the best view of the law after Re A, the story told of the petrified passenger during the sinking of the Herald of Free Enterprise, who had to be pushed off a ladder (and who apparently then drowned) in order that others may survive, may
Citigroup in post-WTO China Analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Citibank as they apply to banking in China, and indicate whether other Citigroup activities can build on Citibank's China experience.
GROUP CASE WRITE-UP Citigroup in post-WTO China . Analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Citibank as they apply to banking in China, and indicate whether other Citigroup activities can build on Citibank's China experience. Citibank can rely on many advantages to penetrate the Chinese market. Its huge experience with the developing markets first provides the bank a reliable and efficient mainframe to face the difficulties of the buoyant Chinese market. Moreover, China is an historic location for Citibank activities since the group has been present there since 1902. With the first liberalisation phase launched by Deng Xiaoping, Citibank was one of the first foreign banks to reach anew the Chinese shores. Both this specific ability to deal with high-risky markets and this first-coming policy give the bank the opportunity to develop an efficient and well-rooted network in China. Consequently, the bank can boast of having a real top-of-mind brand (professionalism, deep knowledge of the market etc.) among the foreign companies implemented in China. Thus the Bank developed its recognition in China not only with the foreign companies but also with government itself. Regarding the professionalism for example, the managers of the PBOC implemented the Citibank audit procedures to the institution so that China could have a top of the art process of audit for its
In this essay, I shall analyse the work of Louis MacNeice, entitled, The sunlight on the garden. It is a modern verse that offers a self-reflexive commentary on life and its key elements.
In this essay, I shall analyse the work of Louis MacNeice, entitled, 'The sunlight on the garden.' It is a modern verse that offers a self-reflexive commentary on life and its key elements. In similarity to the traditional epic verse, the poem is an expression of the speaker's particular personalities and motives. I intend to explore these two subjects in greater detail in my essay. According to the Oxford English dictionary, a poetic analysis is the process, or 'detailed examination of studying a poem...to determine its nature, structure, or essential features.' This is a common practice used by both reader and critic in the reading of prose and poetry and I will adopt this technique in my essay. MacNeice's poem from the thirties transcribes the period of great hardship in the Western World, as well as the speaker's self-hardship of love and death. The Wall Street Crash in 1929 started a worldwide economic depression that lasted for much of the decade and industries such as steel, ship-building and coal mining suffered. Moreover, unemployment in Britain soared which left a hollowed and pessimistic outlook on life. This had a strong impact upon poetry of the time, this particular poem illuminating the confusions and irresolvable issues of the common man. There are many social and political events that influenced MacNeice's work, the First World War being
An experiment to see if clustering of words improves word recall.
Title: An experiment to see if clustering of words improves word recall. Abstract This study tried to replicate the work of Cofer, Bruce and Reicher (1966), however the results of our data analysis for no significant difference between the groups, this may be explained choice of sample. Introduction Memory, one of the most important processes the brain conducts, it tells us everything about ourselves, what we know, how we do things. Much work has been done into the study of memory, its process and how to improve ones own memory. This side of psychology is of keen interest to cognitive psychologist. In the context of psychology memory is the capacity to retain and recall information. This in itself is further divided two main types of memory, long term memory (LTM) or short term memory (STM) Theories of memory processing such as the multi-store model, which is based on the assumption that there are three 'stores,' which make up human memory, these stores are the sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. The difference between them is how much memory is stored by each. The sensory register is a short acting memory store for the sensory record of the stimulus. There is no meaning to the stimulus at this point. From this store the stimulus information passes to the next store, the short term memory store. Peterson and Johnson (1971) showed that information