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University Degree: Architecture

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  1. How and why has Lincoln Castle changed from 1068 to the present day?

    Therefore it was an ideal site to build a castle on. Cobb Hall The castle was under attack in the 12th century as a result of the 'anarchy,' or civil war. Because of this, there were parts of the castle that were vulnerable to attack. As in every castle, these were the corners and the entrances. Fortunately for the Normans, around this time, there were crusading knights in the holy lands, and word of what they found out there was spreading quickly.

    • Word count: 1079
  2. The Vyne House Investigation.

    The fact that the windows are surrounded by typically Tudor walls means they were not before there time and therefore were nothing of startling novelty for its time when regarding uniqueness or originality. Diaper work was first used in late medieval and was very popular in Tudor times and it is abundant on walls at the Vyne. Diaper work is decorative geometric patterns of different coloured brick in a diamond pattern. Diaper work became popular at this time because of advances in technology and mass-produced bricks which were early much more expensive.

    • Word count: 3201
  3. How Great an Impact on an Organisations effectiveness does its Structure have?

    They agreed with Lawrence and Lorsh on the feature of specialisation. Mintzberg (1989) studied seven types of organisations, namely, entrepreneurial, machine, professional, diversified, innovative, missionary and political. He found them to be based on key parts of the organisation, type of decentralisation and their co-coordinating method. All these authors identified the structure of organisation as characterised by not only particular parts but also their horizontal and vertical relationships. The three researchers Lawrence and Lorsch, Drazin and Van de Ven and Mintzberg agreed that the structure of an organisation is vital to the performance of the organisation. This would mean that the structure of the management team would certainly affect its performance.

    • Word count: 1155
  4. "Doggy World Supermarket".

    Coordination occurs through rules and procedures, detailed specifications, and shared traditions between the president and the board of directors. Products that need a high level of specialized knowledge require a functionally organized structure. Organizational Chart There are four levels of management within our "Doggy World Supermarket" organizational structure, and each level of management cannot function effectively without the joint efforts of the other levels. This type of management structure support a functional organizational structure, and each pinnacle is designed to support and accomplish specific tasks and perform operational duties within the organization to guarantee the success of the company.

    • Word count: 2220
  5. The role of the Building Surveyor.

    The client or the builder will inform the building surveyor at the following stages of construction: * Before pouring the concrete foundations at the excavation stage. * Before covering up concrete foundations. * Before covering up damp proof courses. * Before covering up hardcore laid floors. * Before covering up new drains. * At least five days after covering up new drains and roof timbers. * At least five days before occupying the building/or when work is finished. The work also involves: * Liaising and communicating with other statutory undertakings, e.g.

    • Word count: 951
  6. Hell On Earth.

    Ironic that it should be the colour of happiness. The building's most distinctive feature was its huge chimney. I did not need to wonder its purpose. This was the gassing-house. The truck came to a shuddering halt. The back door of the vehicle was opened and a tall, imposing man, with a thick moustache ordered us out. As I went to move, I saw a large rifle tucked underneath his arm, and prayed he need not use it. When the truck had been emptied, we were ordered to stand in lines.

    • Word count: 691
  7. During the Medieval Period why was it important for nobles to build castles?

    In theory, a person's allegienace was always to their overlord, however there were constant battles for land and power and some men became almost as powerful as their overlord. An example of this is William, Duke of Normandy. After many years of war he had become very powerful and a real threat to his overlord, the king of France. In September 1066, he launched an invasion of England with some 7000 men to enforce his claim to the English throne, which had been promised to him by Edward the Confessor.

    • Word count: 4014
  8. Coalbrookdale iron works.

    In this furnace the iron was kept separate from the fuel with a blocking bar. This meant the iron never came in contact with the fuel, so ordinary cheap coal could be used to fire the furnace. The iron was melted and then puddlers would open the door of the furnace and stir the iron. By stirring the iron this brought the impurities to the surface where they were burnt off. This was repeated until all the impurities were removed, so you were left with virtually pure iron. It was then cooled and shaped into a spongy ball.

    • Word count: 4847
  9. Antoni Gaudi, religious fanatic and world-renowned architect.

    He searched for resistant materials, for exampkle, granite, basalt, porphyry, etc. He also used mirrors and photography in his designs. His new and original ideas surprised many and few people understood it, but it resulted in fantastic and imporessive designs such as the Crypt of the Coloma Guell, the Pedrera, Park Guell, and the Temple of the Sagrada Familia. Francesc Pujols, a popular philosopher of the time, and a friend of Gaudi, stated that, "In all the works of the great

    • Word count: 747
  10. How does the Primary Structure of a Protein Dictate its structure and function?

    Two amino acids join together to form a dipeptide. A chain of amino acids is known as a polypeptide. A protein consists of one or more polypeptides. The bond between two amino acids is called a peptide bond. This is formed between the carboxyl part of one amino acid to the amine group of another. They join together in a condensation reaction. The diagram to the right is an example of such a reaction: The structure of proteins can be studied on four levels. These are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

    • Word count: 2482
  11. Why was Styal chosen as the ideal site to build Quarry Bank Mill?

    Samuel Greg also inherited nearly �30,000 from his uncle Robert Hyde in 1782. We know this from source 1: Transcript of the financial agreement between Nathaniel Hyde and Samuel Greg, 1782. Samuel Greg used this money to go towards the building of Quarry Bank Mill. I will now tell you why Samuel Greg chose Styal for the location of Quarry Bank Mill. There were many advantages to the chosen site for Quarry Bank Mill. The land was ideal for building a mill as there was lots of space for expansion, which was used in later years when the mill had many extensions.

    • Word count: 1451
  12. Cladding - essay report on the different types

    This system of connections is applicable to square panels as well as to the trapezoidal and triangular panels of framed domes. 1.1 What is cladding Cladding is a long lasting and durable material that is used throughout the country for many reasons. Cladding is a collective term for any sheeting that covers a building, whether it be on the roof of the building, or on the walls. Roof cladding is made from thicker steel and is rolled to a profile capable of supporting roof traffic.

    • Word count: 2159
  13. Memories of New York.

    From here we caught a second lift right up to the top. As we pushed open the door out to the viewing area, a huge gust of wind hit us, reminding us of the height we were up. There was fantastic visibility that day and we could see all around for at least 30 miles, the view was breathtaking. We spotted loads of places on our list of attractions to see, Macys, The largest store in the world, Times Square and Central Park to name but a few.

    • Word count: 758
  14. Kenilworth Castle: How and why did the Castle Develop Over Time?

    At this time the castle was rebuilt in stone, in Kenilworth's case red sandstone, a material easily come across in the area. Built with thick walls, latest state of the art defences such as Slit windows, parapets, a secure water supply and a single spiral staircase leading up the keep. The whole structure was crafted upon a sandstone plinth, heightening the keep further. The keep was an oblong shape building with square towers. It was designed this way to spread the Keeps weight; the idea was that attackers couldn't mine the wall down.

    • Word count: 1062
  15. 'Why was the Royal Crescent Built?'

    The growth, could be said, started around 1702, when Princess Anne returned to Bath for the 3rd time from suffering from Gout (a painful and potentially disabling form of arthritis) to take to the Spa waters to relieve her of her pains. This patronage sealed the royal favour of Bath, thus drawing in the sick in need of salvage. Illness was also a part of life then. With lack of medical knowledge at the beginning of the century, the Georgians were oblivious to basic hygiene; illnesses such as gout and smallpox were common and hard to be dealt with, and, of course, easy to be caught.

    • Word count: 2532
  16. Art and Entertainment - Architecture - The Seven Ancient Wonders of the World.

    The ancient Greeks and Roman observers loved to compile lists of the marvelous structures in their world. They traveled as much as they could to look for man made wonders and made a list of seven best architectural structures of which they new. This list is called 'The Seven Wonders of the World'. Several lists of wonders were drawn up during antiquity. The list known today is sometimes ascribed to Antipater of Sidon, a writer of the 2nd century bc and author of a travel book. How ever there have been doubts about this list as the Greeks made it and most of the names on the list belonged to them.

    • Word count: 1048
  17. Urban planning, design and management - Antonello da Messina and Christ Church, Spitalfields.

    Finally, the artist's (or architect's) means of representation appears to be similar in both. By examining the commonalities between the two works, we can achieve greater understanding of the merits of each individual effort. Both St. Jerome and Christ Church embrace the concept of realism over impressionism. St. Jerome is almost photographic in its sense of detail; the viewer feels as if he can almost reach out and touch the saint and his library. The painting provides a "you are there" type of quality; it is as if the viewer is an invisible angel in the rafters, gazing down at a brilliant man engrossed in study.

    • Word count: 1670
  18. The Day the Earth Stood Still, Twice - An analysis of the 1906 and 1989 Stanford earthquakes.

    Couple that with the reality that most members of the Stanford community had gone on to become wealthy individuals and leaders of major corporations able to contribute massive amounts of financial aid. The Precursor At approximately 5:20 a.m. on April 18, 1906 the faculty, students, and staff of Stanford University were violently and unexpectedly jolted out of their beds. An earthquake of magnitude estimated at 8.3 on the Richter scale--this form of measurement had not yet been invented--had struck the entire Bay Area.

    • Word count: 4409
  19. Post-industrial Meccas and the phenomenon of urban exploration.

    open the space into an agoraphobic's nightmare. The four barrel vaults overhead intersect to form a Greek cross, the ends of the vaults are filled by semicircular arched windows, each containing roughly one hundred panes of glass, almost every pane has been smashed or fractured in a different way, The patina effect is one which forces me to search the floor for every stone and pebble used to create this chaotic and violent effect. The past echoes of its once bustling atmosphere and its present silence, are drowned out by the reverberating organ music playing over and over in my head.

    • Word count: 5104
  20. What do you understand by the terms 'simulacra' and 'hyperreality' in the context of Postmodernism?

    Baudrillard also believes that the consumer is nothing more than a passive entity that derives all knowledge, thought and action from these 'models' or 'codes', 'The real is produced from miniaturized cells, matrices, and memory banks, models of control-and it can be reproduced and indefinite number of times from these.'(Baudrillard, 1994:2) Hyperreality is a comparatively new word that can be broken down to its components: hyper, and reality, which comes out with 'over and above, beyond that which exists objectively'. Albert Borgman explains that hyperreality is possible when processing information 'to the extent that it overcomes and displaces tangible reality.'

    • Word count: 2336
  21. Proteins account for approximately half the organic molecules in living organisms.

    Individual amino acids in water also possess an acidic COO- group and a basic NH3+ group, making them dipolar ions (zwitterions) - they are said to be amphoteric having acidic and basic properties at the same time. Polypeptides Amino and carboxyl groups on adjacent amino acid molecules can be joined together by condensation reactions to form peptide bonds. folding amino dipeptide tripeptide polypeptide protein acid (500+ amino acids)

    • Word count: 672
  22. The following essay reflects the life and works of Frank Lloyd Wright who was a very famous American Architect.

    The world had completely changed in every way where trains were the method of transport whenever he was born now planes and cars had made travelling more convenient. Whenever Frank Lloyd Wright was born in 1869 the population was 38 Million then in 1959 it had expanded to 178 Million and also at that time there was an unmanned satellite orbiting the earth. There was an unbelievable progress in technology and science in his generation more than there was or has been since.

    • Word count: 1756
  23. Climate plays an important role in your life.

    METHOD To get all the information to determine microclimate around the ISSE schoolbuilding, we worked in groups. Together we had to come up with 6 hypotheses, of which we had to choose the 5 best of them. These hypotheses are going to help us to determine this microclimate. The hypotheses are listed and explained below : Hypotheses > Hypothesis A The average windspeed will be higher at an open place than near the ISSE schoolbuilding. Wind is a factor that can affect temperature.

    • Word count: 4151
  24. Local Study of Warrington.

    There was smooth sandstone which meant that the building had been worked upon throughout time and also an old medieval crypt around the back of the church but we did not have access to it. Around the side of the church we found cannonball holes. Our teacher told us that this was done by Oliver Cromwell and his men punishing the church. When we came across Cromwell's cottage it had a plaque on the wall telling us the date he lodged there (if he stayed at that exact cottage), this plaque was very vague and said that Cromwell lodged around here.

    • Word count: 982
  25. What visual evidence remains of medieval Saffron Walden?

    It wasn't larger because the land nearby was owned by the Braybrookes, now the English Heritage. The other end of the ditch isn't bigger because of the Swan Meadow and the marshy land. Overall however, we wouldn't be able to confirm if these were battle ditches or not without the help of written evidence. We then had a look at a house along Myddlyton Place. From our observations, we saw it was unseasoned timber-framed with oak studs. It also had a bresummer and peg tiled roof. The roof was slanted, not straight, a sign of a typical medieval house.

    • Word count: 1529

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