University of Toronto has been constantly adding new faculty buildings. The recent addition to these buildings is the Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research (CCBR). The unique structure designed by the Behnisch & Partner and arch
In the last few years, University of Toronto has been constantly adding new faculty buildings. The recent addition to these buildings is the Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research (CCBR). The unique structure designed by the Behnisch & Partner and architectsAlliance, stands on the urban landscape as a representation of 20th century architectural sophistication and construction methods. Though, the building is an example of 20th century architectural aesthetics, the design demonstrates a strong connection to the work of Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe. The open concept floor plan, the composition of architectural elements and the perceptional characteristics of the materials show similarities towards the free-plan of Le Corbusier and the Barcelona Pavilion by Mies van der Rohe. In order to understand these similarities, it is essential for one to be familiar with the intriguing design of the CCBR. The 221,120 square-foot building consists of ten open concept floors for the use of medical and pharmaceutical researchers. The entire structure of the building is covered in glass. The double-south glass façade provides the strong control of daylight, depending on the specific research requirements. Similarly, the east, west and north facades are also patterned with laminated glass. There are soaring bamboo planted atriums, every third floor. The
Etruscan Temple Because of the materials the Etruscans used to build their temples we only have the foundations, and Vitruvius' (a Roman architect) account of the temples designs.
Etruscan Temple Because of the materials the Etruscans used to build their temples we only have the foundations, and Vitruvius' (a Roman architect) account of the temples designs. The knowledge of how the temples looked comes from his writings and also from ceramic votive models. Etruscan temples were built on the podium- a raised platform that acts as the foundation for the building. From the courtyard or open city square a single flight of steps was leading up to a front porch. . The Etruscan temple had columns only on one side, which created a porch-like entrance, which set this side off as the temple's front, which was unlike the Greek temple. Etruscan column resembled Greek Dioric order but was unfluted and made of wood with bases. It also had a simplified base, capital, and entablature. The ground plan was divided equally between porch and interior space, which often was separated into three cellas providing home for statues of the gods: Tina (Zues), Uni (Hera), and Menrva (Athena). The representative Etruscan temple resembles the Greek gable-roofed temple, but was made of sun-dried brick with terracotta decoration instead of stone. The columns and entablatures were made of wood or a tufa- a quarried volcanic rock which hardens when exposed to the air. The
How and why has Lincoln Castle changed from 1068 to the present day? Lincoln Castle was built by William the conqueror in 1068. William thought that it was an ideal site to build a castle on because it was previously a Roman fort and had a good view of the surrounding areas and approaches. The castle was also a previous site for a Roman fort and Fosse way was easy to see from the castle, as was the River Witham. Ermine Street ran right through the castle walls. The changes made to the castle since 1068 are extensive and they have been made for a variety of reasons. New buildings have been added and these too have changed use and purpose over the years. From the castle you could see for 25 miles and communications by road were very good. It was very difficult to attack, as you had to ascend a steep hill before you even got to the main castle gates. Therefore it was an ideal site to build a castle on. Cobb Hall The castle was under attack in the 12th century as a result of the 'anarchy,' or civil war. Because of this, there were parts of the castle that were vulnerable to attack. As in every castle, these were the corners and the entrances. Fortunately for the Normans, around this time, there were crusading knights in the holy lands, and word of what they found out there was spreading quickly. Something they found out in these crusades was that in the Middle
Scurta istorie a timpului Stephen Hawking 1. Imaginea noastra despre univers Un savant bine cunoscut (unii spun ca a fost Bertrand Russell) a tinut odata o conferinta publica de astronomie. El a aratat cum pamântul se învârteste în jurul soarelui si cum soarele, la rândul sau, se învârteste în jurul centrului unei colectii vaste de stele numita galaxia noastra. La sfârsitul conferintei sale, o batrânica din fundul salii s-a ridicat si a spus: "Ceea ce ne-ati spus sunt prostii. În realitate, lumea este un disc asezat pe spatele unei broaste testoase gigantice." Savantul a avut un zâmbet de superioritate înainte de a replica: "Si pe ce sta broasca testoasa?" "Esti foarte destept, tinere, foarte destept," a spus batrâna doamna. "Dar sunt broaste testoase pâna jos." Majoritatea oamenilor ar gasi ridicola imaginea universului nostru ca un turn infinit de broaste testoase, dar de ce credem ca noi stim mai bine? Ce stim despre univers, si cum o stim? De unde vine universul si încotro merge? Are universul un început si daca da, ce s-a întâmplat înainte de acesta? Care este natura timpului? Va ajunge el la un sfârsit? Progrese recente ale fizicii, posibile în parte datorita unor tehnologii fantastice, sugereaza raspunsuri la unele dintre aceste întrebari vechi. Poate ca într-o zi aceste raspunsuri vor parea tot atât de evidente ca si miscarea pamântului
. INTRODUCTION: SPATIALITY. Spatiality is defined as any property relating to or occupying a space. When one examines this notion one will find that it is extremely broad in its nature. The various relations such a property can have to its space that it occupies ranges from physical spheres to symbolic and even historic spatial spheres. The majority of the spaces involved are layered under numerous ideological and mythical layers. These elements deal with various power and control structures that are able to be analyzed and revealed. (Spatiality: 2008) Choosing a space specifically in South Africa creates opportunity to analyze or examine a space that is worthy of critical discourse and rich in controversy and heritage because of our past. Here I believe that various elements such as ideological and mythical systems will be revealed many times over regarding the specific landscape I choose to examine. The space I chose to examine is a newly built shopping/entertainment centre in Irene which is called Irene Village Mall. A brief overview of Irene and its history will follow as well as an in depth examination of the Irene Village Mall regarding its relationship to the various spatial spheres. 2. IRENE, DOORNKLOOF. The earliest historical writings record that a tribe called the Bakwena or the Crocodile people lived in the Irene area in the 1800's. The tribe was later driven
The genealogical landscape, then, that emerges from Chesnutt's stories reveals the interwoven bonds between blacks and whites and their senses of place.
"The southern sense of place," Barabara Allen asserts, "is constructed, maintained, and articulated in a distinctively regional conversational pattern . . . [in which] the landscape becomes a symbolic . . . complex structure of both kinship networks and landownership patterns" (152-53). The plot of land or "homeplace" is an "autonomous entity," where genealogies and class distinctions are vital to its existence. In "Genealogical Landscape and the Southern Sense of Place," Allen shows how southern land, particularly rural areas in Kentucky, and its owners (past and present) are inextricably linked, fostering a sense of southern community, conversation, and consciousness. Property ownership, Allen maintains, is the structural foundation of genealogical landscape. Her paradigm-landscape plus kinship plus conversation equals a regional identity-destabilizes, as she acknowledges, once race and class enter the equation. Yet, Allen further claims that these differences, though they complicate the system, do not "subvert [its] basic structure." The "tenants," black and white sharecroppers or farm laborers, exist outside the "kinship network" and relinquish any rights as "full-fledged member[s] of the community" because "there is no way to weave them into the community fabric; they are ghostlike figures who wander nameless and placeless through the social landscape, a class
How Great an Impact on an Organisations effectiveness does its Structure have? An organisational structure is very important to any business no matter the size and without a solid structure the staffing function becomes randomly inefficient and ineffective. A good organisational structure will help a management team in any business to achieve high performance through increases in efficiency and effectiveness. Basic research on organisational structures that are relevant to this essay are those of Lawrence and Lorsch (1967), Drazin and Van de Ven (1985) and Mintzberg (1989). Research on the organisation structures in six enterprises conducted by Lawrence and Lorsch (1967) summarised the features of the organisation structure to be the span of control, number of levels to a shared superior, time span of review of departmental performance, specificity of review of departmental performance and importance of formal rules. Drazin and Van de Ven (1985) defined the organisational structure in terms of specification, standardisation, discretion and personnel expertise. They agreed with Lawrence and Lorsh on the feature of specialisation. Mintzberg (1989) studied seven types of organisations, namely, entrepreneurial, machine, professional, diversified, innovative, missionary and political. He found them to be based on key parts of the organisation, type of decentralisation and their
The Pyramids of Giza The pyramids were erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the River Nile near Giza, northern Egypt; in ancient times they were included among the Seven Wonders of the World. The largest of the three pyramids is called the Great Pyramid; it is the largest of the three, the length of each side at the base averaging 230 metres and its original height being 147 metres. But how ever it has weathered over the many years it has been standing. All three of the structures were covered in limestone but over time have been stolen of their riches. The Great Pyramid's core is made of yellowish limestone blocks, the outer casing (now almost completely gone) and the inner passages are of finer light-coloured limestone, and the interior burial chamber is built of huge blocks of granite. Approximately 2.3 million blocks of stone were cut, transported, and assembled to create the 5,750,000-ton structure, which is a masterpiece of technical skill and engineering ability. The internal walls as well as those few outer-casing stones that still remain in place show finer joints than any other masonry constructed in ancient Egypt. The question of how the pyramids were built has not received a wholly satisfactory answer. The most plausible one is that the Egyptians employed a sloping and encircling embankment of brick, earth, and sand, which was increased in height and
History Around us - Cromford Village and Mills, Derbyshire In 1771 Richard Arkwright, the man credited with inventing the water frame, came to Cromford in the Derwent Valley, often called the "Cradle of the Industrial Revolution". There, he set up the first successful water powered cotton mill. Between 1771 and 1800, Arkwright had built three mills and the village of Cromford had grown considerably. Over time the site has changed and so is the subject of many disagreements by historians. In this project I shall present my observations and evidence of changes to the village of Cromford (in part 1) and the mill site (in part 2). There are many theories as to why Richard Arkwright chose Cromford for his mills. Cromford has a good source of water from being in a valley and with the Cromford Sough, an underground river that never dries nor freezes. It is remote which, although a problem for transportation was good for preventing anyone from copying his ideas, it was also away from workers rioting and smashing machinery in Lancashire. Being a rural village, there was no shortage of land or difficulty with planning. Of course, Arkwright may simply have chosen the area because he knew it, or had friends there. Part 1 - How far did Cromford Village Change as a Result of Arkwright choosing it as the site for his Mill? As can be seen from Source 1, Cromford was small just a
EXTERNAL ENVELOPE CONTENTS .0 INTRODUCTION 3 2.0 FAÇADE DESIGN 4 3.0 HEAT TRANSFER 5 3.1 Conduction 5 3.2 Convection 5 3.3 Radiation 6 4.0 BUILDING REGULATIONS 6-7 5.0 STRUCTURES 8 5.1 Steel 8 5.2 Concrete 8-9 5.3 Glass 10 6.0 FAÇADE FORMS, MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION 11 6.1 Heavyweight 11 6.1.1 Masonry - Stone 11-12 6.1.2 Masonry - Brick 13 6.2 Lightweight 14 6.2.1 Metal Panels 14-15 6.2.2 Plastics 16 6.2.3 Timber 16-17 6.2.4 Fabric 17 6.2.5 Curtain Wall 18-19 7.0 CONCLUSION 20 8.0 REFERENCES 21 .0 INTRODUCTION An external envelope (also know as: façade, skin), is constructed for enclosure of a building to protect the occupants, storage items & the interior of the building from outside intrusion (for security), external weather elements (wind, snow, rain etc), whilst producing a comfort factor relevant for the end user/s by ensuring the correct materials & methods are used whilst cohering with the relevant Building Regulations and British Design Standards. 2.0 FAÇADE DESIGN The façade of a building needs to be designed at the very early stages of the construction process. This ensures that a detailed analysis of the energy input/output, and it's structural integrity and durability is concluded. If this procedure is not adhered to,