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External Envelope

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EXTERNAL ENVELOPE CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 3 2.0 FA�ADE DESIGN 4 3.0 HEAT TRANSFER 5 3.1 Conduction 5 3.2 Convection 5 3.3 Radiation 6 4.0 BUILDING REGULATIONS 6-7 5.0 STRUCTURES 8 5.1 Steel 8 5.2 Concrete 8-9 5.3 Glass 10 6.0 FA�ADE FORMS, MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION 11 6.1 Heavyweight 11 6.1.1 Masonry - Stone 11-12 6.1.2 Masonry - Brick 13 6.2 Lightweight 14 6.2.1 Metal Panels 14-15 6.2.2 Plastics 16 6.2.3 Timber 16-17 6.2.4 Fabric 17 6.2.5 Curtain Wall 18-19 7.0 CONCLUSION 20 8.0 REFERENCES 21 1.0 INTRODUCTION An external envelope (also know as: fa�ade, skin), is constructed for enclosure of a building to protect the occupants, storage items & the interior of the building from outside intrusion (for security), external weather elements (wind, snow, rain etc), whilst producing a comfort factor relevant for the end user/s by ensuring the correct materials & methods are used whilst cohering with the relevant Building Regulations and British Design Standards. 2.0 FA�ADE DESIGN The fa�ade of a building needs to be designed at the very early stages of the construction process. This ensures that a detailed analysis of the energy input/output, and it's structural integrity and durability is concluded. If this procedure is not adhered to, complications may occur in the later stages of the construction process due to restrictions on planning applications and the overall design of the building. 'The functional requirements of a fa�ade are: * Strength & Stability * Resistance to weather * Durability and freedom from maintenance * Fire safety * Resistance to ...read more.


Glass retains a lot of heat giving it a high u-value. So the thicker it is, the more heat it retains and expands so enough expansion room is needed. If thick, glass retains a lot of heat which makes it expand, it will need enough expansion room. 6.0 FA�ADE FORMS, MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION When designing the external envelope, post installation movements need to be taken into consideration. This can be caused by thermal movement, settlement of foundations, elastic shortening of columns, edgebeam and sway deflections 6.1 Heavyweight 6.1.1 MASONRY - Stone Natural Stone Cladding Stone facades can be made in-situ or in factories and made into pre-cast panels. Stone blocks are either ashlar or rubble masonry. Both can be laid in either coursed or uncoursed height. To hold it in place, a lime mixture, cement or mortar can be used. Veneered stone is glued against concrete blocks to form stone cladding. Slipform is short forms (around 2 feet tall) are placed either side of the wall to form a guide for the wall, stones are placed inside of the forms and concrete poured to hold them together. Mechanical fastening against the steel frame holds the stonework in place. Design and installation is covered under BS 8298. The thickness is typically 75mm with new standards bringing it down to about 40-50mm thick. This is dependant on the type of stone, structural calculations and performance testing. ...read more.


Is a fully framed member and whole framing is predominately constructed in-situ. The frame supported to main slab with the expansion joints in mullions. Stick systems are usually found constructed for shopping malls. Unitised Very expensive system. It is of floor to ceiling height with sealant, is very good quality, very durable and an has excellent performance. If used, this system is very rapid so saves a lot of time but is extremely heavy. Panellised Like unitised, is about 6-8m wide. Panels are very expensive and large so need fewer. This system can cover two floors as a time and is very heavy so a good crane needs to be used in line with the correct method statement. This system is generally not used. Spandrel Ribbon Spandrel is the opaque part of the fa�ade and is made of ribbon panels with a silicone sealant to allow for expansion. This system is not as common now as it was in the 1980's. Structural Bolted Glass The glass is either bolted to a supporting frame or a number of pieces of glass are bolted together to form a structural glass assembly. 7.0 CONCLUSION Designing and installing a fa�ade isn't just a simple task. It is the skin of the building that protects the end user from the outside elements. There are many, many various systems and materials that can be used and is dependant on the location of the building and the atmospheric conditions to how the material will deteriorate. You need to take into account how the size and load of the building and exactly what building is used for. 8. ...read more.

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