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University Degree: Planning

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  1. Communities and Local Government highlight water efficiency as a key priority. Why is water efficiency a concern and what are the broader impacts of the built environment on water management? How effectively does BREEAM assess water related issues?

    Additionally, during 2007-2008, about 3 billion litres of water per day were wasted (figure includes Wales) due to leakages. This accounts for one fifth of the total distribution. However, the percentage has fallen by 35% since 1990-1994 and 1999-2000 but it has remained constant since then. In addition, in 2008 there were 723 serious pollution incidents that affected water, as well as land and air. About 10% of these incidents were caused by the sewage and water industries. (DEFRA, 2009)

    • Word count: 1798
  2. With reference to the RIBA work stages explain how a designer and design team would produce a design from the clients initial brief through to start on site.

    During these stages that in RIBA would be A-B appraisal and strategic briefing constant relaying of information is needed between architect and client to ensure no misunderstandings are made leading to legal disputes, so the amount of cost incurred by other professionals like bore hole specialists will need to be agreed with and confirmed in writing with client also the design teams charge for these stages or total payment in instalments will need to be confirmed. Even a relatively small build will require other team members such as a services engineer, and is the beginning of what is known as

    • Word count: 6044
  3. Electrical engineering - Mesfet stands for metal semi-conductor field effect transistor. Mesfets are constructed in compound semiconductor technologies lacking high quality surface passivation.

    The high mobility leads to a high current, transconductance and transit frequency of the device. The main disadvantage of Mesfet structure is the presence of a Schottky metal gate. The Schottky metal gate limits the voltage on the gate to turn on the voltage of the Schottky diode. The turn on voltage is usually 0.7V for Schottky diodes. Therefore the threshold voltage must be lower than the turn on voltage (0.7V) There are two main structures that are used for Mesfets; There are two main structures, Non-Self aligned source and drain and Self aligned source and drain.

    • Word count: 849
  4. Construction Economics. This essay will outline the key factors of supply and demand in the market for new owner occupied housing in the UK and how this forms a market price and quantity sold. It will also analyse how changes in average income, costs of

    of costs of labour 16 INTRODUCTION This essay will outline the key factors of supply and demand in the market for new owner occupied housing in the UK and how this forms a market price and quantity sold. It will also analyse how changes in average income, costs of rented housing and costs of tradesmen affect the market for new homes in the UK. Lastly it will give its analysis on why elasticity of demand would be of interest to a local house builder.

    • Word count: 3166
  5. Case Study procuring construction. Interserve Ltd. (Contractor) are 41 weeks in on a school extension (The Project), which is to be handed over at the end of week 60. The project is on an existing occupied secondary school site for Merthyr Co

    During the second stage full design details were developed, from which the contractor prepared bills of quantities and subsequently various priced sub-contractor packages. This was then submitted to the client along with various cost savings to provide a market tested package totalling �3.8m, saving �200k against the budgeted target cost of �4m. The contractor is capable of 'Pure' D&B but as the client has already engaged with their own DTP, the initial configuration was more representative to 'Fragmented' D&B, as the contractor was not at that point certain who will become the supply chain.

    • Word count: 2341
  6. Impact of Technology in Construction

    Designs can be changed on the day instead of re-drafting which could take days. Time and costs were rapidly reduced with newly skilled CAD users being in demand creating highly skilled job roles. Architects, Designers and Engineers are now able to produce extremely accurate, quality drawings with minimal fuss. With this advancement in Technology, this has enabled the accurate design and production of pre-fabricated materials and components of a building, including: * Pre-cast drainage components * Pre-cast service bridge * Pre-cast stairs * Pre-fabricated kitchens * Pre-fabricated bathroom * Pre-cast walls/external envelope (aka "flat packs) * Modular Units (aka "pods")

    • Word count: 1745
  7. Applying the Theory of Constraints to Management Problems

    They also look at investment in the system to improve it overall. Finally, and most importantly, they allow us to start the process again, cementing the idea that identifying system constraints is a never-ending cycle - indeed it has to be infinite, or else the current solutions will gradually become obsolete as the competitive industry around the organisation moves on. Evaporating Cloud Allows managers to focus on two core mutually exclusive decisions. The model identifies the subconscious assumptions that hold us back from finding a solution to the problem.

    • Word count: 3382
  8. This document is an adaptation scheme proposal and feasibility study report for Manor House. Changing the use of a building, as with any such venture there is an element of risk. The degree of risk will depend on a number of variables relevant to the prop

    Approximately 40m of flint wall with brick dressings runs from the south-west corner of the south-wing southwards. Interior The building is set over four floors; basement, ground, 1st and 2nd (within the roof). Featuring a staircase with curtail step, cast-iron balusters of early Gothic Revival design, wreathed mahogany handrail, and open, arcaded string; the arcading is the section of the curved and stepped underside of the staircase which continues under the first-floor landing. Dado rails and moulded cornices adorn the staircase hall. All the rooms off the staircase hall have mahogany 6-panelled doors, the being panels decorated with Greek Revival incised ornament, with the room facing the bottom of the stairs having a more elaborate architrave, also of Greek Revival character.

    • Word count: 8175
  9. Sustainable House

    "House-builders are only weakly incentivised to act on sustainability issues because of information and other market failures" (Department for Communities and Local Government, 2010b). The sustainability of a prospective house is an important selling point, Research by builders merchants Wolseleys found nearly 63% of adults in Britain would pay more for an energy efficient home, and 24% of these people are willing to pay between �1,000 and �5,000 on top of the property's asking price for an energy-efficient home and 11% say they would be happy to pay up to �10,000 more (Better Generation, 2009).

    • Word count: 5349
  10. Condition survey

    with cornice and storey band * 2-window range, 2-storey segmental bay with 3 windows to each floor, additional window to left. Camber-arch brick lintels. Central ground floor bay window has Palladian window above, has been turned into entrance. * Hipped Slate roof with lead flashings and loft conversion, small dormer window on south slope. Chimney stack on front slope and rebuilt render/red brick chimney stack on south end. * Approx. 40 metres of flint wall with brick dressings runs from the southwest corner of the 1913 wing southwards.

    • Word count: 4455
  11. Urban planning of orchard road

    Subsequently, Cold Storage opened its store to provide food supplies. In the 1930s, Orchard Road became the new social magnet for the colonial city, drawing more people to it and slowly gaining popularity. The well-known Orchard Market where Cuppage Plaza now sits, between Cuppage Road and Koek Road, provided fresh products for residents until the mid-1960s. The Cold Storage Milk Bar, now Centrepoint, was also a popular hangout in the 1960s. In 1958, C.K. Tang Department Store was opened. The trendy Fitzpatrick's Supermarket was located where Paragon now sits. Wisma Atria sits on what was previously known as the Wisma Indonesia offices of the Indonesian Embassy.

    • Word count: 3359
  12. Real estate Market Analsis

    The price ranges from $900psf for a typical Executive Condominium unit to above SGD $2,500psf for a Super Luxury condominium unit. The different location, price, quality of fittings and facilities are the main factors that aid in the categorizing of the different developments into their respective subsectors. Singapore Current Home Prices for the Luxury Sector From the figures provided by Singapore Real Estate Info, it can be seen that there is an increased of transacted volume of non-landed luxury properties that were sold from S$2,000psf to S$3,000psf in District 9 and 10 in recent months.

    • Word count: 15616
  13. The Development of Planning Ideas U.K Planning: National Parks

    (Andrew 2001) wrote about Fundy National, "Park has not been removed from economic development, but has been the focus of that development". This view summarises the economic functions of NP's. (Francis, 1998), outlines National Park's purposes, "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such a matter and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations". National Parks have a responsibility to provide people with easy access and to enjoy scenery or historic objects in a way that will not damage or compromise their safety for the future generations.

    • Word count: 2414
  14. Disability and the Built Environment- How Leeds City centre caters for disabled workers and shoppers.

    for disabled staff and Phase 3 which was passed in 2004, this requires businesses and shops to make physical adjustments to the buildings so as to remove any potential barriers for access to disabled people, and wheelchair bound individuals. These policies were set up to ensure that everyone is treated fairly and to help both disabled workers and shoppers so that they are not discriminated against for some reason. These policies are integrated into businesses as either the Governments policy on the matter or the business constructs its own policy to show that they take the matter very seriously.

    • Word count: 1896
  15. Discuss why the way we think about places and imagine them to be is important in constructing our understanding of places. Use the attached article, Imagine there's a heaven... The Observer, Sunday January 14th 2007, and draw on its discussion of L

    In the article Steven Bayley portrays and questions the nature of life in the city Liverpool. He hails the city for its great and inspiring architecture and its people but also at the same time he expresses the ugly side of a declining city plagued by dereliction and decay. This article demonstrates the power of imagery in fostering one's understanding of places and ultimately how human interaction with local environment illustrates Steven Bayley's personal thoughts and views of Liverpool and his understanding of other places. All which are based on his deep attachment and passion for a place which he grew up in and still calls it home even though he has moved out of it.

    • Word count: 2769
  16. Why is public participation so important in land use planning?

    represent non-participation, their real objective is not to enable participation but to "educate" or manufacture consent. The next three rungs are tokenism (Informing, Consultation and Placation) and this allows citizens to voice opinions, but they lack the power to have their voices observed or respected by the power holders. The last three rungs are degrees of citizen power - Partnership enables them to negotiate and engage in tradeoffs with power holders, Delegated power and Citizen Control allows citizens to obtain majority or total managerial power.

    • Word count: 1442
  17. Set out the way in which the Industrial Revolution impacted on urban form and development

    There were fluctuations in employment to concentrated workers without anybody or anything to fall back on in distress. This insecurity added to the existing problem of chronically depressed and the abandoned urban poor. The poverty this caused among sections of the working class was felt most in the slums of urban areas, with filthy living conditions, overflowing drains and cesspools, contaminated water supplies, rampant spread of disease and increased death rates for the people living there. Also connected to all these was the increasing segregation of society in urban areas into different districts, streets and suburbs according to different status and income, different classes lived in isolation from one another.

    • Word count: 1726
  18. The nature of Property Market & Roles of A Valuer. The traditional methods used in valuations are called the five methods. Factors affecting Property Values

    The traditional methods used in valuations are called the five methods. These are: * The Investment (Income) method; * The Comparison method; * The Contractor's (Cost) method (a cost-based method); * The Profits (Accounts) method; * The Residual (Development) method. The Residual method is used in development situations but may also rely heavily on the other methods. It may use the investment methods, for instance, to determine the gross development value of the proposed development, or it may use the comparative method to compare capital values or site values calculated with examples from the market.

    • Word count: 1905
  19. Sustainable communities report

    Based on academic and professional evidence the report will conclude as to whether the UK governments target is achievable. The analysis will be considering the key issues arising from the literature review. The literature reviewed will be most recent published information as the target is fairly new. I have chosen this topic as it is topical and it is at the forefront of Government plans to make housing more sustainable, and thus reduce the affect of global warming in the UK. The knowledge I already have on the issue leads me to believe the 'carbon zero' target is a contentious issue as there is debate as to whether it is a realistic target.

    • Word count: 2593
  20. Free essay

    Global Positioning Systems and their use in General Surveying

    The time difference is measured using the following equation; Range to Satellite (Distance) = Signal travel time (DT) x Speed of Light (Velocity) This range is called a pseudo-range. Each satellites unique signal allows the pseudo-ranges to several satellites to be measured at the same time. The pseudo-ranges to at least four satellites are measured to give the position of the receiver, be it ground or handheld, in the following manner by using "Trilateration"; The first pseudo-range gives the position on the surface of a sphere; Figure i Figure ii The second reduces this to a circle; The third gives the position to two points; Figure iii And the fourth confirms the actual

    • Word count: 1371
  21. Evaluation of Selected Materials for a Construction Project

    These use the same combination of materials stated previously in the form of steel, timber, concrete and polystyrene. Structural Insulated Panels proved to be of some interest utilising timber and polystyrene. Upon considering the upper storeys the refurbishment of the previous school would include simple block internal walls and partition walls in the office spaces. Comparison of Materials; By comparing each of the materials stated above in the simple table below, the strengths and weaknesses can be ascertained and an informed decision reached as to which materials will be utilised in this construction project for each element.

    • Word count: 1914
  22. Investigation into Proposals for the Superstructure of a Building

    * Superstructure (load distribution structure). * External Envelope (load bearing or non-load bearing). * Internal Finishes. * Roof Structure Superstructure; The functional requirements of the superstructure are such that it needs to have the strength to maintain the loads imposed on it, for example; able to support the roof and maintain stability. It should be durable, fire resistant and far as reasonable considering its proximity to other buildings and preferably affordable and sustainably sourced or recyclable. The performance specifications required to meet these functional requirements with regards the loading capabilities of the Superstructure can be seen in Approved Document A

    • Word count: 11094
  23. Analysis on China real estate industry

    Researchers have done a lot in anglicizing the real estate bubble in China. Qi Liexiu (2005) thinks that in current market situation, China do not exist obvious real estate bubble, after anglicizing the relationship between house demand and supply in China, only some investment demand is magnified that make some area seems abnormal, he considers more about the role of government, though there exist bubble risk, it could be controlled through appropriate currency policy and the government action. Jia Zuguo (2008)

    • Word count: 5350
  24. Kyoto and Fuel Poverty

    Agenda 21 called on all nations to: * Cut down their use of energy and raw materials. * Reduce pollution and waste. * Protect the fragile natural habitats of animals and plants. * Share wealth and opportunities more fairly between the developed and the developing world. By 1997, not much progress had been made on the Rio conference objectives. Also in 1997, the Climate Treaty Conference was held in Kyoto, Japan. More than 150 Nations attended the Summit and agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to below 1990 levels by the year 2012. The Kyoto Protocol was the first ever International Treaty to set legally binding emissions reduction targets on developed countries that have ratified it.

    • Word count: 1713
  25. GMU Parking

    (Nelson, 2007, p. 236). There is no doubt that the 30,000 plus students enrolled contribute to this statistic. Close to 5,000 of these enrolled students live on campus. Out of the 25,000 left a small number carpool, or take public transportation. The state and counties provides access though public transportation such as the Metro Bus, the Cue Bus, ART Bus and the PRTC Bus. Mason is even accessible through different bike paths. Even with these factors taken into account, a large portion of students are still commuting into school every day. "86% of college students say owning a car is crucial.

    • Word count: 1921

"Places draw us to them for reasons beyond the feelings derived from the five senses..."

-Alison and Peter Smithson

If you spend your free time comparing and contrasting the best parks, cathedrals, and train systems from around the world, then you might want to consider a university degree in architecture, building or planning. Students of these subjects study the built environment, and get the chance to leave their mark on the world in a very concrete fashion.

Although these subjects involve visual skills like drawing and model-building, they also require a fair ream of writing. So when you set down your pencil and ruler at the end of a day and find yourself faced with a blank text document, visit Marked by Teachers' collection of architecture, building and planning essays. Our teacher-marked essays will nurture your writing skills until you're able to write confidently on any topic that's called for.

Students of architecture, building and planning often go on to further training and careers within their fields of study; they can also switch to degreesand careers in related subjects, including engineering, art history or tourism, transport, and travel.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent does our understanding of space depend on the way we think of time?

    "`Conclusion The issues of time and space are, therefore, of great relevance, on a philosophical, as well as an mundane level. Fundamentally, time never stands still, and so our understanding of space will always be affected by the passage of time, to a certain extent. The degree to which the concept of space is dependent on time on a conscious level is, however, culturally-defined. An urban community, for instance, will probably have a far more commercial view of space than a Sioux Indian, whose appreciation of space is likely to be on a more aesthetic and philosophical level. `Overall, the changing values which we have assigned to time and space over the past century have led to destructionism. Instanteneity triumphs in the post-modern world, leaving people feeling detached from their sense of place. The future has become part of the present, as people attempt to guard against future shocks, via insurance. These combined problems have, in my opinion, led to the recent resurgence in the popularity of traditional values which has occurred in many industrialist countries, notably the USA and the UK. This represents an attempt to find stability once more in our ephemeral world. Nostalgia is effectively used to guard against time- space compression, which has already led to a reappraisal of our perceptions of time and space. `"

  • How can academic work on cities and identity help us compare the portrayal of an aspect of urban life in the following films: Boys 'n the hood and Minority Report.

    "So in conclusion the academic work that we have studied can help us understand the portrayal of the different aspects of urban life within cities. All aspects are can be tied together for instance crime and surveillance, work and family and so on. People tend to take films or any other sort of media interaction at face value and not truly understanding what the director wants to say within his film. Different people will view the same two films I watched differently and may disagree with what Soja may have said, but at least with the academic knowledge we posses now, we can take it all in and at least try to look at it from a different angle."

  • Discuss how the social geography of race and ethnicity is shaped by racism and exclusion.

    "In conclusion the different races and ethnicities of 'modern world' cities have been forced to clump together in groups of the same ethnicity/race. This has lead to a patterning urban environments and the 'Ghettoisation' of city suburbs. This is seen as a potential problem by governments, and the underlying problem of cultural sensitivity and equality, when planning socially to prevent social exclusion, has been attempted to be addressed by city planners. The planners however have come across a few barriers when trying to mix residential areas, such as communication with different ethnic minorities. Planners have in some cases found that people lack mutual communication and people tend to just talk past each other."

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