Cities reflect in tangible ways the values of the societies of which they are a part. Discuss this statement in relation to cities in the Russian Federation since 1991.
Cities reflect in tangible ways the values of the societies of which they are a part. Discuss this statement in relation to cities in the Russian Federation since 1991. The urban landscape is essentially a man-made product, its development results from the ideas, preconceptions and prejudices of the people that design its physical structures, and it is then modified and reproduced by the people that live within its confines. In this way the city must reflect the values and cultures of the people that make up the urban area as a physical entity. Its production and reproduction in space must be regarded as a dialectic in that the urban structure influences and is also influenced by the actions of the people living within the city. The socialist and capitalist cities differ in their structure because of differing interpretations of this dialectic. Whilst capitalism stresses the importance of free markets and therefore the significance of the actions and values of people in determining urban structure; socialism involves the imposition of an ideology on a society. In this way the form of the city is seen as a way of initially imposing and subsequently reproducing new socialist principles on society. The revolutions of 1917 brought to power in Russia a party that based its principles on the ideas of Karl Marx, as interpreted by Lenin. The avowed aim of the new regime was
Examine the claim that cities have entered a 'postmodern' stage in their development.
Examine the claim that cities have entered a 'postmodern' stage in their development. Postmodern, refers above all to the exhaustion of modernity (Lyon, 1994). It is beyond the scope of this paper to explain the phenomena of modernity, however modernism is from where postmodernism begins. It is a complicated set of ideas, it emerged as an area of academic study around the 1980's and is extremely difficult to define. It appears in a variety of disciplines such as art, communication, music, film, architecture to name a few and it is hard to determine where postmodernism embarks on. Regarding the city, postmodernism signifies a break with the modernist idea that planning and development should focus on large scale, metropolitan-wide, technologically rational and urban planning (Harvey, 1989). This is the functionalist side of modernism, whereas postmodernism emphasises urban design including an array of architectural styles, soft edges, consumerism and an urban fabric which is fragmented. Cities are hubs for an assortment of tastes and opinions, cultures, religion, fashion and ethnic groups. The features of the modern city are of it being specialised, uniform and standard. Identity would no longer be found in the local community leading on to a 'society of strangers', (Lyon, 1994). If modernity was the product of the Industrial Revolution, maybe it is the Information
Outline what you think the strengths and weaknesses of the English planning system are.
Nicola Duncan-Anderson Outline what you think the strengths and weaknesses of the English planning system are. Societies have always planned, however, it was not until the Town and Country Planning Act (1947), that the planning system in England, really came in to being. This Act was the first major piece of legislation that gave the system a framework, making all development subject to planning permission (Nix et al, 1999). The system aimed to reconstruct Britain from its postwar state to become a strong, independent and self-sufficient nation. Two factors were of particular importance. Containing urban spread and protecting the countryside. There was focus given to agriculture, which was looked upon most favorably. Recently however, this has been replaced with an environmental direction. The system has had to cope with major changes within society, the economy, and the political scene (Cullingworth and Nadin, 2001). These changes have made planning issues more diverse, which has seen the system become complex and submerged in policy (Cullingworth and Nadin, 2001). The role the planning system plays inevitably invites opinion, both positive and negative. It is these strengths and weaknesses that shall be outlined below. Strengths The British Planning System 'has remained resilient' (Rydin, 2003), 'remarkably defending dominant values for over 60 years' (Bartlett, 2001).
Urban Pollution in the UK - Is the city now a healthy place to live?
Urban Pollution in the UK: Is the city now a healthy place to live? Robert Hudson CP207 4 Dec 2002 Introduction A high proportion of the UK population (80 - 90%) reside it urban districts. (Environment Agency 200 ). The modern day environment of the city has improved considerably since the industrial revolution. However, contemporary urban centres are still far from being the ecologically sustainable settlements many politicians and planners desire. Energy, food and raw materials are all inputted and consumed by the city, recycling is rare, and the urban ecology has been radically reformed through development and pollution. (Rogers & Gumuchdijan 1997) A high-density population equates to a less sustainable settlement. (Troy 1996) This paper aims to look at some of the different types of physical pollution in the city and assess their effects on human health. Air Pollution Man has manipulated the environment since the birth of the human race, however it is debatable when Urban Pollution began. Air pollution can be traced back to medieval times, when coal was first burnt as fuel. In the 17th century the mass burning of coal was linked with increased death rates, although this was not reliably proven until 20th Century. The late 18th and 19th Century brought the Industrial Revolution. In industrial cities such as Manchester, pollution was viewed as a small price to pay
From my coursework I hope to find out the effect the Trafford Centre, a large development has had on the local community such as the Bolton Town Centre.
From my coursework I hope to find out the effect the Trafford Centre, a large development has had on the local community such as the Bolton Town Centre. To complete my coursework successfully I will have to use many areas of business studies such as the different types of questionnaires and samples. I will have to do a questionnaire consisting of approximately twelve questions. I will then question twenty-five people from different age groups, genders and backgrounds. It will be a stratified sample aimed at mainly local residents. I will probably have to make a few enquiries, which can all be done via the Internet. I will have to request profit and loss accounts for some similar stores, which are found in both the Trafford Centre and Bolton Town centre. Profit and loss accounts for the company as a whole are only available, which is of little use when you have to compare which business in a specific area is more successful. Some types of stores I could e-mail are Dixon's, Debenhams, The Link, and Burtons etc. I need to compare the profit and loss accounts to prove my prediction that the Trafford Centre attracts more business than the Bolton Town Centre. If I am unable to get some profit and loss accounts I can compare the number of visitors each centre gets annually and come to a conclusion from them. The Trafford Centre information pack, which I requested and received
CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF URBAN PLACES:
CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF URBAN PLACES: . FIXED TRANSIT ON ALL SECODARY CORRIDORS: Fixed-rail transit helps to guide development and keep the streets busy. When development happens around fixed-transit, it is easy to get around on foot because everything is closer together. On the contrary, when transit isn't fixed, as with a diesel bus route, or it is designed around the auto, transit becomes impractical because everything is further apart. New York is an example of a walking city that grew up around fixed transit. Dallas is an example of an auto city built up around roadways. It is very convenient to get around without a car in a walking city built around fixed transit. This makes it so there are more people on the sidewalks, and businesses can thrive from walking traffic, without the need for parking. Fixed-transit can be light-rail, a subway, or a bus that operates from overhead wires. A bus way built for diesel buses is also fixed transit, but because the bus can leave the bus way it doesn't have the same positive impact on development and density as other forms of fixed transit. 2. MIXED-USE NEIGHBORHOOD: Mixed-use neighborhoods solve many urban ills. By intermingling commercial, residential, and civic functions in the same neighborhoods, you reduce dependence on automotive transport, since destination facilities are always close at hand: one can walk to the
For this assignment, I have chosen to study the North West Kent area. For this particular area of study, I am going to look at how retail has changed over the last 20-25 years and how retail is changing today.
INTRODUCTION For this assignment, I have chosen to study the North West Kent area. For this particular area of study, I am going to look at how retail has changed over the last 20-25 years and how retail is changing today. I hope that I will gain a valuable insight into where, how and why people decide to shop. I am going to study the various distribution services that provide the supply chain that continuously transports goods from the producer to the buying consumer. Through this assignment, I will report about the role that shopping has in our everyday lives and how the retail industry as a whole reacts to this. Over the last 20-25 years, there has been a considerable increase in the number of out of town shopping centres. The North West Kent area is a good example of this as it is home to the largest out of town shopping centres in Europe- Bluewater. The reason for Bluewater being at this particular location is because: * It has good transport links to London and the surrounding South Eastern area. * It is in close vicinity to the capital. * Runs directly alongside the M2, a major link from the ferry terminal at Dover to London. * It was built on and old, disused chalk quarry, this would minimise the local land loss. * Less likely to encounter congestion unlike inner city centres, so the probability of receiving a parking space is increased. Before the
Describe and explain the changes which have been made to improve the health of people in Wigan during this century.
Public Health in Wigan 900 - Present Day Question 3 = 10 marks Describe and explain the changes which have been made to improve the health of people in Wigan during this century. There have been several major changes which have contributed to the improvement in the Public Health of the people of Wigan during the 20th century. The main changes have been in the extension of mains water supplies and drainage to virtually all properties, and the replacement of the slums that resulted from the Industrial Revolution. The provision of more and better hospitals and medical services has also helped. In recent years many new private housing and commercial developments have changed the appearance of Wigan beyond recognition, compared to its appearance one hundred years ago. The improvement in water and drainage was a continuation of the developments that had started in the 19th century with the construction of the sewage works at Newburgh in 1881. Water supplies and drainage were extended to the slum clearance areas as new houses were built. Before the 1920's there was a lack of finance and interest in improving people's living conditions. It was the end of the First World War that started the changes. In the King's Speech to Local Government representatives in 1919, the King stressed the need to improve "the unhealthy, ugly, overcrowded house ... if drink and crime are to be
Brief: You are appointed as the Planning Advisor for a major mixed used development on the edge of Kingston Town Centre. The development is to include retail, office, residential and leisure, together with car parking at basement levels.
Planning coursework Brief: You are appointed as the Planning Advisor for a major mixed used development on the edge of Kingston Town Centre. The development is to include retail, office, residential and leisure, together with car parking at basement levels. You have just been appointed by the developer, and have been asked to prepare a Report to address the following matters: . The team required to advise the developer on all matters related to the preparation of the scheme up to the submission of a full planning application. 2. The specific tasks which are to be carried out by the Planning Advisor. 3. The indicative programme for these tasks, on the basis of a nine month lead-in time to submission of the planning application. 4. Identification of any critical dates within this programme. 5. General advice on the approach to be taken by the developer / project team in the lead up to the planning application submission. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- There are a number of ways in which a development process can be described as a sequence of events or series of stages from start to finish of the project. These can be broken down into 10 stages: ) concept and initial consideration 2) refinement of the idea 3) site appraisal and feasibility study 4) detailed design and evaluation 5) planning
Hypothesis - "Environmental Quality and Housing Quality Increase with distance away from the C.B.D."
Introduction Hypothesis "Environmental Quality and Housing Quality Increase with distance away from the C.B.D." To investigate this hypothesis a field trip to Altrincham was undertaken with the aim of analysing the town's urban characteristics and comparing them with a pattern we might expect as predicted by classic models of urban structure. The hypothesis is based on the Burgess and Hoyt models of settlement/urban structure. Models of urban structure a) The Burgess Concentric Zone Model: Commuter Zone KEY C.B.D Factory zone Lower class housing Upper class Commuter Zone Housing Definitions C.B.D: is where all major shops and offices are situated. Here, there are high rents, as it is the most accessible part of the town or city. It is the most accessible because most rail stations, and roads terminate here. The transition zone: is the zone of change. Old warehouses and manufacturing is in this zone alongside old housing. This zone is gradually being improved, as the C.B.D expands into it, for example, Castlefield in Manchester. Here all it used to consist of was old warehouses, but now there are shops, offices, and expensive flats. Lower class housing: is the closest housing zone to the C.B.D. It is good for being close to work (the factory zone), but the houses are old. There are also small