The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Urban Policy Making
The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Urban Policy Making By Harpreet Chadha New Labour came to power in 1997 proceeded to re-establish the power of town planning and adopt a more socially and environmentally aware programme of urban policy. Progress was slow at first, apart from the creation of the D.E.T.R. (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions), and the publication of a series of consultative documents on the importance of urban renewal, socially inclusive policies, joined up thinking and community development. This re-orientation is reflected within the shift in academia towards the importance of the micro level of society i.e. towards the individual, the local community and social interaction. In other words community involvement and public participation have been promoted to the forefront as a means to create urban policy. Local government continues to push forward the agenda on public participation. Authorities clearly recognise the benefits of engaging the public and are increasingly trying to involve people in local decisions and developing service delivery. So what is public participation, how is it defined in its literal sense and within the context of the question, what forms does it take, and why? The D.P.L.G. of South Africa (Department of Provincial and Local Government) defines public participation as a principle and approach
The aim of the project is to investigate how social disadvantage varies within Spalding and to find out if there are any geographical factors that cause a change in social disadvantage.
The aim of the project is to investigate how social disadvantage varies within Spalding and to find out if there are any geographical factors that cause a change in social disadvantage. To find this out, two specific variables will be tested, which both involve primary data (data which I have collected) and these are: * How the environmental quality varies as the distance from the centre of Spalding town increases. * How the environmental quality varies according to the percentage of detached houses in an enumeration district. Two specific hypothesis' concerning these variables will be used and these are: * That environmental data score for enumeration districts will generally be lower (indicating a high standard of living and high environmental quality) the further away from the centre of town an enumeration district is. I think this hypothesis will be true, as the houses in the enumeration districts on the outskirts of Spalding will generally the newest because the town has expanded over time. This would mean that there are generally fewer houses in these areas which will have had very little time to deteriorate, less congestion and vandalism would be found in these districts and the houses in these areas will be better laid out. * That the environmental data score for enumeration districts will generally be lower (indicating a high standard of living and high
How can academic work on cities and identity help us compare the portrayal of an aspect of urban life in the following films: Boys 'n the hood and Minority Report.
How can academic work on cities and identity help us compare the portrayal of an aspect of urban life in the following films: Boys 'n the hood and Minority Report. What fascinated me most between the two films I have studied is the radical differences in the portrayal of crime. Boys 'n the Hood is about two gangs at war, with guns and violence being part of everyday life whilst in Minority Report, murder has been eradicated by having three pre-cogs (three gifted humans who have the power to see a murder before it actually takes place) predict the murder and the precrime officers arrest the soon to be murderer. So far, throughout my studies I have learnt about the self and the city and the identity a city can carry. Identity can be categorised in many ways such as age, class, race or even urban or rural. I have also learnt about the development of cities such as the post-modern city, which I found links directly to both of the films I studied. The post modern city can be classified in many ways, Edward Soja said "a postmodern urbanisation process can be defined as a summative depiction of the major changes that have been taking place in cities during the last quarter of the twentieth century" ¹. With the film Boys 'n the Hood, the major changes that had happened in the last quarter of the century was black people getting equal rights, but although still not totally
Saltaire provided a standard of living that was far in excess of normal mid nineteenth century living conditions. Do you agree?
Saltaire provided a standard of living that was far in excess of normal mid nineteenth century living conditions. Do you agree? The aim of the coursework was to look at all the facilities that Titus Salt developed in Saltaire, in order to prove that people living and working there had a better standard of living than others working and living in other Industrial towns and cities. Housing The most important way that life was better for people in Saltaire was the quality of houses. For example all of the 824 houses in Saltaire had a living room, a kitchen and two bedrooms as well as a back yard and some had a small front garden. All the houses in Saltaire had piped water and gas, and each had its own outdoor toilet. This is very different to other industrial cities of the time, such as Bradford, Liverpool and Manchester where most people would have a communal toilet per street and there was no running water or gas. We can see this in a source about Leeds in 1842: "To build the largest number of cottages on the smallest possible space seems to have been the original view of the speculators. Thus neighbourhoods have arisen in which there is neither water nor privies." 1 This shows that lack of planning and space was one of the reasons as to why houses in industrial cities like Leeds and Bradford didn't have these facilities. Titus Salt planned his town very well before
Dual Narrative Story.
Dual Narrative Story. The alarm clock went off at exactly 8:00 am. Jenny was up and out of bed in an instant. As she was getting ready for work she flicked the radio on. 'Another terrorist strikes.' A car bomb attack in the next city had killed three and injured twenty people. Jenny stood for a moment by the mirror remembering these people that had suffered not so far away. Slowly Rhian crawled out of bed. It was another day that would be taken up studying for tomorrow's exam. She slowly got dressed and ate her breakfast thinking of her father as she did so. Just the other week he was killed in an attack - a terrorist attack. 12:00 precisely. Jenny left the doctors surgery where she worked, and made her way to the town. Here she met her husband waiting outside the café. It was their anniversary - a special day. Jenny pushed the thoughts of the terrorist attack out of her mind and looked forward to a good meal, shopping and a day out with her beloved husband. Rhian stopped abruptly from her studying. She was meant to meet her friend, in town, five minutes ago. She locked the door and ran to the bus stop - just in time. Rhian arrived in town fifteen minutes late apologising to her friend. She was going to have a fun afternoon, no studying, just shopping and spending time with her friend. A table at the café was booked for 1:30, enough time for Jenny to buy her husband an
Discuss how the social geography of race and ethnicity is shaped by racism and exclusion.
Discuss how the social geography of race and ethnicity is shaped by racism and exclusion What is meant by the term race? The term race is now not widely accepted (non-scientific category), as it is seen as categorisation of human beings based on genetic make up only (Genotypes, Phenotypes). Therefore is it obviously not realistic in the modern world as nowadays people can have multiple ethnic or racial backgrounds. Examples of different types of race in the today include, Caucasian, Negro, Chinese, and Japanese to name a few. These Artificial categories are said to be 'determined at birth' and are easily distinguishable by physical appearances such as skin colour and facial structure. Race doesn't take into account any cultural beliefs of an individual. Its is these cultural beliefs that are said to shape an individuals Ethnicity i.e. a persons cultural upbringing determines personal traits such as Religious beliefs, Language, levels of social interaction etc. Race is therefore overall seen as a "mode of oppression" (An Identity forced upon individual). Ethnicity on the other hand is a more modern term used for those individuals that share cultures on the basis of language and or nationality. I.e. ethnicity is based around an individual's culture rather than just his/hers race. The term Ethnicity can be defined as "membership of a subgroup within an environment dominated
What is the value of studying the history of urban development and planning?
Charlotte Peck What is the value of studying the history of urban development and planning? Urban development and planning is an effort by public authority to guide the improvement of land. The interests of economic efficiency and common welfare have to be taken into consideration. It could be said that planning has taken place for thousands of years, since the movement from temporary to permanent settlements, when buildings began to be related to territory. Catal Hiiyiik 7000bc (in central Turkey) was one of the first large settlements (with a population of several thousand residents) to develop during the Neolithic revolution. The settlement was isolated, with no network of trade centres to trade with, no organisational structure to cope with increased numbers, limited societal development and a subsistence economy. The emergence of urban civilisation saw an advance in technology. Uruk 3400 - 3100bc, one of the major cities of Mesopotamia, with a population of 10 000 saw the evolution of the wheel, for transport and pottery production; bronze smelting; writing to record transactions and the production of sun dried and baked bricks. Uruk, when excavated in the 1930s was found to have been enclosed by a wall, had a religious precinct and a port. Rectilinear forms could be found within Uruk and a series of courtyard homes made up the residential areas.
Examine six basic principles for starting an urban church in New Brunswick, NJ.
God is working in America today. As America becomes increasingly urban, there is a great need for urban church planting. New strategies and ideas are coming out each year as urban ministries are becoming more popular in cities around the U.S. With this move toward the city, we must be careful that urban ministry does not become a mere fad. Instead, it is important to have in mind "the desires of the poor."1 In planning for the future of urban churches Larry McSwain says, "if we want to talk about the future of mission and ministry in the city, we need to focus on the entity that is at the heart of what urban mission is about, namely, the congregation."2 In this paper, I will examine six basic principles for starting an urban church in New Brunswick, NJ.3 I have chosen New Brunswick, NJ because I am leading a team of ten graduates from Harding University to plant a church New Brunswick.4 After describing each principle I will site an example of how each will change the dynamics of a church plant in the northeast and then describe each principle in my own context.5 The first basic principle for doing an urban ministry church plant is prayer. Every church plant and church planter should keep in mind that God is the one who builds his church. Any project is doomed to failure unless God is in it. All of our church planting efforts must be based solidly on a commitment
Travel Writing - Oh, the joys.
Travel Writing - Oh, the joys I come from Wycombe. Contrary to common prejudice, I don't think the reputation that Wycombe has received is deserved. By no means am I subjected to the rougher aspects of Wycombe: I live in a private road; close to the town centre, the cinema and the sports centre. Unfortunately it's the people who live in Wycombe that make it vulnerable to any classroom jokes. Having lived in Wycombe for over seven years, I would say that I have witnessed a range of characteristics unique to the town. For example, where else would you find youths who light dry leaves under the underpass, not causing quite the dramatic effect that they would have liked, but still making it too smoky to pass through. Where else would you find people who buy so many fireworks when they are on sale, that they can keep setting them off for at least 6 months after Guy Fawkes Night? It is mainly the local 'yobbos' that make me walking home from the bus so entertainment, but in general, Wycombe strikes up such a pleasant atmosphere that I can't imagine living anywhere else. The education in Wycombe is a mixed bag. On the one hand there are three Grammar Schools, but on the other, slightly dirtier, hand there are two Upper Schools. Unlike Marlow, where the two schools are relatively far away, three of them are so close together, you can almost feel the 'love' between them. Lucky for
intro to setlement course work
INTRODUCTION This is a coursework study on Craneswater Avenue, which is part of one of the inner suburbs of Portsmouth. This is part of the settlement syllabus. I chose to look at Craneswater Avenue because of its ease of access, its short walking distance of my school; it's positioning close to the sea and the C.B.D. Additionally, because it is part of an inner suburb which are generally interesting, easy to collect data about and has a variety of architecture. Craneswater Avenue contains houses ranging from Victorian, to modern, so it gives a good insight into many different styles, ages and conditions of buildings and the materials used to build them. It is a residential area, so it is also possible to request the residents to complete questionnaires enabling a look at the characteristics of the residents who live in and around Craneswater Avenue. Portsmouth dates back to 286 AD when it started as a small naval station that was developed by the Romans. In 897 AD King Alfred sent a fleet of ships out to meet the Danes from Portsmouth and it was such a resounding victory, that ever since then Portsmouth established it's self as the chief home of the navy. Years later, in 1545 Henry VIII watched his fleet set sail from Portsmouth only to witness the sinking of the 'Mary Rose' which capsized due her guns not being secured correctly and the ship being overloaded with