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Structure: Form Vs Function

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Introduction

STRUCTURE: FORM VS FUNCTION By Danielle Cove Senior Thesis 5/10/02 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 2 INTRODUCTION 4 3 STRUCTURES 5 3.1 FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE 5 3.2 ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 5 4 BUILDING CODES 5 5 LOADS 5 5.1 STATIC LOADS 5 5.1.1 Dead Loads 5 5.1.2 Live Loads 5 5.2 DYNAMIC LOADS 6 5.2.1 Impact Loads 6 5.2.2 Earthquake Loads 6 5.2.2.1 Richter Scale 6 5.2.3 Thermal and Settlement Loads 6 5.2.4 Resonance 7 5.3 WIND LOADS 7 5.3.1 Wind Drift 8 6 MATERIALS 8 6.1 STEEL 8 6.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE 8 6.3 PLASTICS 8 6.4 FORCES ON MATERIALS 9 6.4.1 Tension and Compression 9 6.4.1.1 Yield Stress 9 6.4.1.2 The Law of Least Work 9 6.4.2 Elasticity and Plasticity 9 6.4.2.1 Elasticity 9 6.4.2.2 Linearly Elastic 10 6.4.2.3 Plasticity 10 6.4.2.3.1 Brittle 10 6.4.2.3.2 Temperature 10 6.4.3 Safety 10 6.4.3.1 Safety Factors 10 7 BEAMS AND COLUMNS 11 7.1 NEWTON'S LAWS 11 7.1.1 Equilibrium 11 7.2 TRANSLATIONAL EQUILIBRIUM 11 7.3 ROTATIONAL EQUILIBRIUM 11 7.4 BEAM ACTION 11 7.4.1 Moment if Inertia 12 7.5 SHEAR 12 7.6 BUCKLING 13 8 TRUSSES 13 9 DOMES AND DISHES 13 9.1 STRUCTURE OF DOME 13 9.2 MODERN DOMES 13 9.3 HANGING DISH 13 10 FORM-RESISTANT STRUCTURES 14 10.1 GRIDS AND FLAT SLABS 14 10.2 STRENGTH THROUGH FORM 14 10.3 CURVED SURFACES 14 10.4 BARREL ROOFS AND FOLDED PLATES 15 10.5 SADDLE ROOFS 15 10.6 COMPLEX ROOFS 15 11 SKYSCRAPERS 15 11.1 HIGH-RISE 15 11.2 STRUCTURE OF A SKYSCRAPER 15 12 APPROACH 16 12.1 DECIDING THE BUILDINGS 16 12.1.1 Criteria 16 12.1.2 location 16 12.1.3 time period 16 12.1.4 Building type 16 12.1.5 Buildings 17 13 KEMPER ARENA ROOF: KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI 17 13.1 HISTORY 17 13.2 DIMENSIONS AND STRUCTURE 17 13.2.1 Scenario 18 13.3 EXPLANATION 19 13.3.1 Media coverage 19 13.3.2 Why it collapsed 20 13.3.3 Calculations 20 14 HYATT REGENCY: KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI 21 14.1 HISTORY 21 14.2 DIMENSIONS AND STRUCTURE 22 14.2.1 Scenario 22 14.3 EXPLANATIONS 22 14.3.1 Media Coverage 23 14.3.2 Why it ...read more.

Middle

All have different concepts and physics behind them. 5.3 HANGING DISH The hanging dish is an inverted dome. However, instead of having parallels and meridians, it has only the meridians, called radial cables. These cables connect at the center of the roof by a tension ring. The radial cables support the reinforced concrete slabs between them. These slabs are what keep the tension in the cables and the tension ring (Salvadori 280). Hanging dish roofs are usually light. Therefore, methods had to change in order to keep the roof stable under wind loads and other forces. Putting weights on in between the normal process of putting on the slabs and then putting cement mortar on the cables was the innovation. This stretched the cables before the cementing and sealing took place making the roof stiffer and able to withstand more force. Removing the additional weights makes the roof want to move upward; however, the cement grout holds it in place. In other words, it is prestressed (Salvadori 282). Another problem with this kind of roof is drainage. Unlike conventional roofs, where the rainwater slides from the highest point in the center of the roof, the hanging dish roof has water sliding from the outer edges into the center. This soon creates a trapped pool of water. Pipes running from the center of the roof to the outside make for a visually unpleasant sight. So pumps are used to remove the water, with backup gasoline pumps incase of power failure (Salvadori 283). 6 FORM-RESISTANT STRUCTURES Form resistant structures owe their resistance solely to their shape (Salvadori 186). 6.1 GRIDS AND FLAT SLABS Flat roofs became possible only with the invention of steel and reinforced concrete. The reason behind this is that a curved roof, or other element, is stronger than a flat one. You can see this is a curved piece of paper. If held along the short end the paper will wilt, however, if you hold it the same way except curve the paper upward along the edges, it will stiffen and support a small amount of weight. ...read more.

Conclusion

= 0.557 Conclusion: Since the Sd is substantially lower than the Sc the walkway is unsafe and unstable. 11 APPENDIX I: VOCABULARY Arch action - the push of an arch outward at it's base, a "need" to be flat Allowable Stress - a percentage of the yield stress that is calculated by veteran engineers Beam action - when a beam, or other straight element, is bent so that it's upper and lower fibers are in tension and compression Brittle - materials that do not behave plastically; materials that break without warning; materials that have elasticity but not plasticity Buckling - what happens when a straight element bends under compression Building codes - a set of rules and regulations that deal with the safety and aesthetic value of a building Cantilever - a beam that is held in place at one end and not at the other Compression - what happens to a building that is being pushed by a load Critical load - the load at which an element becomes unstable Curves - there are three types: cylinders, domes, and saddles Dynamic loads - loads that change suddenly or rapidly Elasticity - the ability of a material to stretch of contract when a load is applied to it and return to normal when the load is lifted Equilibrium - when all forces acting on a material are balanced by another equal and opposite force Factor of safety - the scale by which safety is measured Flanges - the top and bottom parts of an I-beam Form resistant structures - structures that owe their existence solely to their shape Lamination stress - the slicing of steel into thin layers that happens at high altitudes if not treated properly Law of least work - a load on a building will find the easiest path in a structure to the ground, the path that requires the minimum amount of work on the structural materials Linearly elastic - elasticity that behaves linearly; when a load is increased by a factor the stretching or bending increases by that factor as well. ...read more.

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