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An investigation to find the effect of bile salts on the digestion of fats.

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Introduction

AN INVESTIGATION TO FIND THE EFFECT OF BILE SALTS OF ON THE DIGESTION OF FATS Proposed method I intend to investigate the effect of bile salts on the digestion of fats. I will make up different concentrations of bile salts and add them to a lipase and fat (in this case full fat milk) mixture. I will then measure the digestion of fats by measuring the amount of fatty acids produced during the breakdown, which will be shown as a change in pH. I predict the weaker the concentration of bile salts, the slower the digestion of fats, i.e. the pH change will occur slower. Scientific background to the method Bile is an important part of the digestion of fats. It is made in the liver, and is stored in the gall bladder. Bile contains bile salts, electrolytes, bilirubin, cholesterol, and phospholipids.1 The bile salts are mainly derived from Sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate. The Bile salts we are using in this investigation are synthesized sodium taurocholate. They do not work in exactly the same way as bile in our bodies, and so the effects on the digestion of fats in this investigation may be slightly slower than in real life. Bile salts have detergent action on particles of fat, which causes them to break down or be emulsified into minute, microscopic droplets called micelles, which are only 0.5- 1.0 �m in diameter. ...read more.

Middle

The active site of the enzyme then changes, and is no longer specific to the substrate. It is too difficult and complicated to keep the solutions in a hot water bath, so I am going to keep them all at room temperature, so they are all slowed down by the same amount. I will monitor the room temperature every minute to check that it is at stable as possible. Amount of substrate/substrate concentration Because if there is more/less substrate molecules in one bile concentration than another, then the rate of digestion of fat will be in accurate. If there is less substrate, then the rate of reaction will increase, because thee are less substrate molecules for the active site to break. Use the same syringe each time to add the substrate to the test tube, so that the error is the same in each solution. Same apparatus for each bile concentration Different pieces of apparatus may have slightly different measurements, and by using the same apparatus, I am incurring the same error in all the bile concentrations. I will use the same apparatus for each bile concentration. Volume of bile salts, milk, sodium carbonate for each bile concentration Keep the speed of the magnetic flea stirrer the same for each bile concentration. Because stirring makes the substrates and enzyme move around, causing more frequent collisions with each other, and increasing the amount of substrate breakdown I will keep the magnetic flea on the same speed setting for all of the bile concentrations. ...read more.

Conclusion

Add 20 cm3 of milk to a 100cm3 beaker using a 20cm3 syringe. Add 5 cm3 of bile salts solution using 5 cm3 syringe Add 10 cm3 of 1.0 M sodium carbonate solution using 10 cm3 syringe Using the syringe is the most accurate way of measuring volumes. Put this beaker and the magnetic flea into the bigger beaker and switch the stirrer on. The magnetic flea constantly stirs the mixture at a steady speed. Place a test tube of 5 cm3 5% lipase solution into the water bath. Stir the lipase inside the test tube before use. The temperature of the mixture in the big beaker and the lipase will be of the same temperature, and by stirring it I am preventing the solid from sinking to the bottom of the tube. Put the pH meter into the mixture, and wait for a few seconds for the pH to settle before adding the lipase and start the stopclock Putting the pH meter in and checking it before adding it ensures that the pH is not changing without adding the lipase. After 10 seconds start recording the pH for another 50 seconds in 10 second intervals Recording after 10 seconds allows the initial rate of reaction to be recorded without including the initial pH drop due to the lipase. Recording for 50 second afterwards allows for enough time intervals to make conclusions about the data ...read more.

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