What causes Anorexia
What causes Anorexia? For people with anorexia, it really is true that one can never be too thin. Despite being dangerously underweight, anorexics see a fat person when they look in the mirror. What they don't see is the tremendous physical and emotional damage that self-starvation inflicts, so they continue to diet, fast, purge, and over-exercise. While people with anorexia often deny having a problem, the truth is that anorexia is a serious and potentially deadly eating disorder. Fortunately, recovery is possible. With proper treatment and support, you or someone you care about can break anorexia's self-destructive pattern and regain your health and happiness. What exactly is anorexia nervosa? An example; (Maria's Story) Seventeen-year-old Maria has been on one diet or another since she was in junior high. She recently lost 10 pounds from an already slender frame after becoming a strict vegetarian. Her parents are concerned about the weight loss, but Maria insists that she's just under stress at school. Meanwhile, her vegetarian diet is becoming stricter by the day. Maria obsessively counts calories, measures food portions, and weighs herself at least twice a day. She refuses to eat at restaurants, in the school cafeteria, or anywhere else in public, and she lives on salad dressed with vinegar, rice cakes, and sugar-free Jell-O. Maria also has a large stash of
Drugs from the Sea.
Drugs from the Sea Tyler Herrington Chemistry 11 Mr. Tuckwell Oct. 1, 2003 Medicinal drugs are a very important issue to many humans today. They are used to prevent diseases and to cure infected people. Unfortunately, many strands of bacteria are now becoming immune to many of our current vaccines, and we urgently need to find new sources of disease fighting entities. A marine biology based institution, by the name of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, located on the coast of California, in La Jolla, has realized that the ocean has many great opportunities for new medicines; it is just a matter of where we look. A marine biologist, based at this institution, by the name of William Fenical, is the director of marine based vaccine research. His current research could lead to future vaccines for cancer and possibly even today's incurable viruses. He explains that the days of being able to just wander a forest, take a dirt sample, and find a medicinal substance are over. Many of the past medicines, he says, are becoming obsolete. Many marine vaccines are currently in clinical trial and a few look like they could be successful in the near future. Ecteinascidin 743, for example is a marine-based drug, derived from a sea whip, Ecteinascidin turbinata, which has been proven in lab studies to be effective in fighting against human breast cancers and rodent leukemias.
Discovery of Rice Genome by Monsanto Company.
Biotechnology - Discovery of Rice Genome by Monsanto Company Summary This is a four-page paper on biotechnology. Taking Monsanto Company as a case study, the paper discusses the recent discovery of rice genome. The 21st century provides immense opportunities for an unparallel growth in the field of biotechnology and life sciences. By using the discipline of biology, ever-new ways to produce food, fiber and other valuable consumer products are being developed. The consumer products vary in range from pharmaceuticals, to plastics developed from renewable and environmentally sustainable sources. In the field of agriculture, biotechnology is being used for crop hybridization, mechanization, commercial fertilizers and pesticides that are not only safe, but they benefit agricultural technology. In combination with traditional seed and plant protection technologies, biotechnology is aiding the filed of Integrated Pest Management and Integrated Crop Management. Though all these products and disciplines are the fruits from the developments in biotechnology, determination of their safety or potential risks to human safety, plant and animal health require a close regulation and monitoring from institutions such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The following paper will however
Mad cow diesease
Inna Sergeychik Genetics Professor Sartori November 8, 2010 Mad Cow Disease and Prions Mad Cow disease is formally known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy, and it has been linked to be the cause of other diseases. This disease is believed to be involved in a transmembrane protein called PRP (.sup.c). PRP is a prion that has a normal and infectious scrapie form. The biggest disease believed to be caused by mad cow disease is New-Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD). A prion is defined as a proteinaceous infectious particle that lacks nucleic acids. There are four levels of to a protein structure, which need to be understood before prions could be learned about. The primary structure consists of a repeating sequence of N-C-C. The secondary structure has an alpha helix, and a beta sheet. The tertiary structure is the final three-dimensional structure of a protein. The quaternary structure consists of multiple polypeptides bound together by covalent bonds into a single larger protein. The level of a protein that actually affects prions is the secondary structure. There are two forms of prions, a normal cellular prion, and an infectious form. The prion is encoded by a single gene on the 20th human chromosome. The normal prion is converted by an unknown sequence of events in which the coiled structure is refolded into a beta-sheet. In the infectious form, the
Discuss the biology of Alzheimers disease
Discuss the biology of Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease (AD), a form of dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder, which involves memory and cognitive deficits as well as deterioration of intellectual functioning including language, visual spatial skills, judgment and intellectual abilities. Although the etiologies of Alzheimer's are largely unknown, researchers believe that biological factors and genetic factors contribute to AD. Firstly, there are pathological characteristics associated with the disease, including brain atrophy, neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus (Mayeux, R, 2006). Secondly, extracellular amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are believe to contribute to the development of AD. Finally, it is widely believed that genetic factors contribute significantly to AD. While at present there are no cures for AD, some second-generation drugs have the ability to slow the progression of the disease (Irons-George, 1995). However, much of the etiology of Alzheimer's still remains inconclusive. In 1907, Alois Alzheimer first discovered the neuropathological changes that are found in the brains of Alzheimer affected patients. According to Khachaturin & Radebaugh (1996), Alzheimer found clusters of proteins in the brain and also noticed brain atrophy, the shrinkage of the brain caused by neuronal death (Paladino, 1997, p.276). These
Commentary on Food Biotechnology Consensus Conference.
Commentary on Food Biotechnology Consensus Conference Submitted by: Submitted to: Dr. Downey Submitted on: June 13th, 2002 Course: CNST 443 June 12th, 2002 Introduction Science and technology produce many benefits but at the same time they are the cause for concerns on health and environmental welfare. Technology saves lives but with every new invention there are unintended consequences which we call (risks(. Technology risks are serious issues which will become only more prominent as new discoveries and innovations are made to enhance the quality of our everyday lives. Is the risk of trading in our health and environment quality for technological advancement worth taking? How do we decide which risks are worth taking and which are not? How to deal with risks? In order to prevent any surprise as a result of new innovations, we must learn to assess and manage risks in an effective manner. Risk management is a process of managing an organization's risk exposures to achieve its objectives in a manner consistent with public interest, human safety, environmental factors, and the law. Beck, in his article called Politics of Risk Society, was well ahead of his time in calling attention to the importance of the concept of risk and the practice of risk management as essential features of modern society. Risk management requires communication and trust between academic
Industrial Case Report on "The Scotch Whisky Research Institute" Date of visit: 15th October 2008 For the attention: Dr. Ashok Adya Submitted by: Venkatesh Kolluru I D: 0803568 MSc Biotechnology BI1103A Industrial and Biomedical Biotechnology INTRODUCTION: SWRI (Scotch Whisky Research Institute) is registered in Scotland. It is also the member of AIRTO (association of independent research and technology). SWRI is mainly situated in Edinburgh (at Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh). The main aim and objectives of this institute is its keenness to attract the inquires, suggestions and advices from the academic institutions, research institutions, etc in order to conduct work on spirit drink production. Apart from this it also serves the needs of its member companies in improving their products and process and to maintain position of SWRI in the world market. SWRI also addresses the long term technical issue for the sustainability of the company and also ensures UK national research addresses distilling concerns. Its laboratories are UKAS accredited to ensure highest quality in all services. COMMERSIAL ASPECTS: Organisation of the company: This is a research institute which deals with providing the correct process of manufacturing and storing of whiskey. This also helps in the finding out the adulteration that has been done in the production. The Company is
Oxfam's point of view.
Oxfam's point of view QUESTION 1: What is Oxfam's view on proposed changes to the TRIPS agreement? The global burden of ill health is most disproportionate in developing countries. Any changes to trade rules that have an impact on health must diminish the problems these countries already experience in delivering safe and affordable medicines to the poor. Recent changes, however, risk having the opposite effect. Pharmaceutical companies operate in a marketplace in which R&D priorities are kept separate from global health needs, the poor are sidelined for corporate marketing strategies and sales profits. There is a need for reforms to the TRIPS agreement for an increased commitment to global health initiatives. QUESTION 2: What is the biggest factor developing countries face in terms of being sidelined for, as you say, "sales profits"? The TRIPS agreement as it stands is likely to keep prices of vital medicines higher than they otherwise would be and thereby exacerbate the vast health disparities between rich and poor countries. Even with TRIPS in place, pharmaceutical companies continue to lobby for stronger patent protection within the agreement. As such, there are negative implications for poor people's access to life-saving drugs. So it can be said that affordability is one of the factors restricting access, and patent protection is a key issue influencing
Functionality of Cardiac and Skeletal Muscles
Functionality of Cardiac and Skeletal Muscles Sean Tavakoli April 14, 2010 Section: A020 Abstract: Lab exercises 8 and 9 were performed to learn about the physiological properties of skeletal and cardiac muscles. In lab exercise 8, the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated from a bullfrog and several experiments were performed with a kymograph to test the effect of stimulus intensity on a muscle, the timing of muscular contraction, and testing titanic contraction. In lab exercise 9, a bullfrog heart was used to understand the properties of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle is very unique, because it can only be found in the heart organ. Experiments in lab exercise 9 included controlling the heart rate with four different agents: adrenalin, cold ringer's solution, warm ringer's solution, and acetylcholine. Additionally, the initiation and transmission of cardiac contraction was tested by stopping the SA node and finally looking at the reaction properties of cardiac muscle with the assistance of a kymograph (Stefaniak pg 84). Introduction: Skeletal and Cardiac muscles can be very similar. They possess the ability to contract due to the actin and myosin sliding filaments, which is a trait in every type of muscle tissue. They are also both striated and when stimulated, can cause action potentials. This means that they both follow the sliding-filament model, which is based on the
Personal Response for "The Other Drug War".
Personal Response for" The Other Drug War" After watching the video "The Other Drug War", I was deeply surprised by "The Other Drug War" debate. I never noticed the battle between the consumers and pharmaceutical companies before. Prescription drugs and medical services are extremely expensive in the United States, but I didn't know the true reasons behind it. Because of expensive drug prices, I bought a lot of drugs (including Vioxx) from China when I visited. In China, we don't need doctor's prescription to buy drugs. We can buy any drugs with lower price, because we have a price control system. United States has different medical system; here is a free market system. We have to pay high price for the drugs. After watching the Frontline video and researching, a couple of reasons behind the highest prescription drugs price are coming out. As Maine Senator Chellie Pingree said, "Drug industry was not any other business. This is something that keeps people alive." I think government and pharmaceutical companies both have responsibilities to reduce the prescription drugs price to an affordable price. I agree with the thoughts expressed by some of the speakers in the interview. Mr. Sidney Taurel, CEO of pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly, argues that they need a high profit margin to fund the research and development of new medicines and compensate for failed research. However,