International Biodiversity Day 2005
[SW1] International Biodiversity Day 2005 Sunday May 22, was the International Day for Biological Diversity. Each year celebrated to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues. Biological Diversity is defined[SW2] as: Life on earth: the variety of all plants, animals and microorganisms. Celebrating the day also marks the signing of the International Convention on Biological Diversity by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Earth Summit (aka the Rio Summit) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, dedicated to promoting sustainable development. Thought as a practical tool for translating the principles of Agenda 21 into reality. The Convention recognises that biological diversity is about more than plants, animals and micro-organisms and their ecosystems. It is also about people and our need for food security, medicines, fresh air and water, shelter, and a clean and healthy environment in which to live. Biodiversity is the source of the essential goods and ecological services that make up the source of life for all. The celebration each year of the International Day for Biological Diversity is an occasion to reflect on our responsibility to safeguard this precious heritage for future generations. Sadly, the earth's biological foundation is eroding at a rate unequalled in at least 65 million years. Globally, species have been disappearing at 50-100 times the natural
The Changing Environment
The Changing Environment Simone M Brady SCI210 Dr. Hoffmann August 27, 2005 INTRODUCTION The Earth as we know it may cease to exist if changes are not made in the attitudes and actions humans have toward the environment. Ecosystems have existed for hundreds of millions of years whereas humans are fairly new to the game. The materialistic needs of western society, more so than other societies is destroying Earth's natural systems. It is imperative at this time that an environmental revolution takes place in order to ensure future sustainability of the Earth's natural ecosystems. This paper is based on that premise. DEFINITION OF ECOSYSTEM The idea of ecological integrity and its ethical basis was developed in 1939 by Aldo Leopold, however; Leopold failed to identify quantitative measures. Leopold wrote, "...a thing is right when it tends to preserve integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise" (Leopold 1939). Cairns, et al. (1977) provided a more quantitative definition, "Biological integrity is the maintenance of the community structure and function characteristic of a particular locale or deemed satisfactory to society." Another definition was developed by Karr (1987), "...the capability of supporting and maintaining a balanced, integrated, adaptive community of organisms having species composition, diversity, and
The Oceans Earth is the only planet in the Solar System that has liquid water. The ocean contains ninety seven percent of the earth's water and covers almost three quarters of the planet. There are four different oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and the Arctic. Tides and currents occur in all three of these oceans. Many different kinds of fish and mammals also make their homes in these oceans. All of these oceans are connected to each other in some way. Humans find oceans to be very interesting, beautiful, and exploring. All oceans contain salt water and other minerals. The Pacific Ocean has the largest body of water in it. It spreads nearly halfway around the world. The Pacific Ocean is also the deepest ocean out of all four oceans. The Atlantic contains the second largest body of water. Next is the Indian Ocean, which is on the borderline of being a big ocean and a small ocean. Last is the Arctic Ocean, which by all means is the smallest ocean of them all. Ocean water and currents affect the climate. Because it takes far more energy to change the temperature of water than land or air, water warms up and cools off much more slowly than either. As a result, inland climates are subject to more extreme temperature ranges than coastal climates, which are insulated by nearby water. Over half the heat that reaches the earth from the sun is absorbed
Using field and class laboratory data, compare and contrast the base metal nutrient cycles for two contrasting soil ecosystems
Using field and class laboratory data, compare and contrast the base metal nutrient cycles for two contrasting soil ecosystems. Introduction (context of study, background info) 'West Walk' is located in Hampshire, England and is the largest remaining fragment of the 'Forest of Bere' at 350 hectares. Consisting of a wide range of different plant and tree species, it is rich in biodiversity (Fig. 1) which in turn has a direct affect on the types of soils and nutrients in the area and the locations the differences can be found in. Figure 1. 'Biodiversity in West Walk' Soils are complex materials, reflecting the variability of the parent rock material and organic residues from which they form (McBride, 1994, p. 31). Soil is formed due to a combination of the weathering of inorganic material (the material in which McBride, 1994, labelled as the parent rock material or which could also be known as rock or sediment) and the decomposition of organic material (vegetation litter resulting in humus and decay products), a process known as 'Soil Genesis'. 'Soil Organic Matter' consists of all living and dead organisms contained within the soil including for example, remains of plants and animals. Carbon, however, is the main constitute of organic matter accounting for approximately 58% of the total weight and so when measuring the amount of organic material in a soil, carbon is the
Examine the reasons for the existence and localities of biodiversity hotspots.
Supervision 2: Examine the reasons for the existence and localities of biodiversity hotspots "I have never experienced such intense delight... such a plenitude of forms, colours, behaviours-such a magnitude of Life! What explains the riot?" - Darwin (1851) "The current massive degradation of habitat and extinction of species is taking place on a catastrophically short timescale, and their effects will fundamentally reset the future evolution of the planet's biota." - Novacek & Cleland (2001) Biodiversity may be regarded as 'the number, variety and variability of living organisms' (MacDonald, 2003: 406). Whilst global variation in biological diversity has long been a source of fascination, it has recently been the basis for increasing concern (Tilman, 2000). Awareness of the extent and rate of the current biodiversity crisis (or the 'sixth extinction', as termed by Leakey & Lewin, 1996) has led to a significant re-assessment of the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning and the scope for policy intervention to enable its preservation, exemplified by the international ratification of the Convention on Biodiversity in 1992. The identification and analysis of spatial patterns of biodiversity has been central to conservation goals of maximum preservation at the least cost (Reddy & Davalos, 2003). The hotspots approach is one of many methods for delimiting areas of
Entomology is the scientific study of insect.
INTRODUCTION Entomology is the scientific study of insect. Insect are groups of animals which have no back bone (invertebrate). They have three distinct regional divisions (head, thorax and abdomen) in their body make them different from other invertebrate. They have six legs, compound eyes and a hard outer casing made of chitin. Most insects have wings in some form, occasionally vestigial in nature, but some of the more advanced insects, which have evolved social living, have casts which have no wings at all, e.g. workers. Whilst Forensic entomology is a science field which involves the study of insects and other arthropods to gather information about crime scene and support legal investigations. Forensic entomology is mainly concern with the interpretation of insect evidence found in association with decomposing corpses found under suspicious circumstances. (Byrd, 2007) forensic entomology can be divided into three components; medico-legal entomology (this section focus on the criminal aspect of the legal system and similarly deals with the necrophagous (feed on dead tissue) insects that infest corpses) the Urban entomology (deals legal proceeding, which involves insect and other animals that affect human and their immediate environment) and stored product entomology (focus on insect infesting stored commodities, like foodstuffs). (Langford et al, 2005) Forensic
Sir David Attenborough
The Biography Of A Scientist No Text Citation - Reference Reliability Score 1 to 5 Explanation Wikipedia(2009) Good starting point with some useful links - Not used 2 BBC Online (2009) 4 Informative biography with links to all the series - Used 3 Bright (2007) 5 Excellent source. Charts a walk through of career with much detail. - Used 4 Byatt, Fothergill, Holmes (2001) 3 Directly linked although only a foreword written - Used 5 The Guardian (2009) 3 Long article outlining a specific period in time - Used 6 Wildlife Magazine (2009) 4 Looks into a couple of theories - Not used 7 BBC Radio 4 (2006) 3 A personal broadcast reviewing years of work - Not used References; BBC Online 2009 Science & Nature; TV and Radio follow up Available from; http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/programmes/who/david_attenborough.shtml (Accessed 21/10/2009) BBC Radio 4 2006 Science; Wild Times - David at 80 Available from; http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/wildtimes.shtml (Accessed 22/10/2009) Bright, M, 2007. 100 Years Of Wildlife. Frome: Ebury. Byatt, A. Fothergill, A. Holmes, M. The Blue Planet a natural history of the oceans. London. BBC Worldwide Limited. Wright, J. Watch This. Guardian, 19 October. Wikipedia 2009 Sir David Attenborough article Available from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Attenborough (Accessed 22/10/2009) Barnes, S. 2009. Snippets
With reference to one named global ecosystem, assess the extent to which humans actions are threatening it's biodiversity.
With reference to one named global ecosystem, assess the extent to which humans actions are threatening it's biodiversity. Coral reefs are one of the most highly productive ecosystems in the world, with a complex ecology involving symbiotic plants, animals and bacteria (i.e. a food web - everything is interlinked, so if one population alters in biomass this will affect another population as a result). Although they are highly productive, they are also an endangered ecosystem, the majority of threats being born from human activities or actions. Coral reefs are vertically layered, and this provides a large range of niches, increasing the biodiversity of the reef. They an important marine biome because it is estimated that there may be between one and nine million undocumented species associated with coral reefs, but only 4,000 species of fish and 800 species of reef-building corals are known. Therefore we must do what we can to manage the human actions that are threatening the biodiversity before the endangered species move to extinction. Over fishing in places like the Philippines and Indonesia has caused the disappearance of many types of fish from entire areas. With out these predators in the area, 'pests' like the sea urchin increase in population. Sea urchins kill live coral as they feed on algae, so eventually, algae growth overtakes the coral and can suffocate it.
The Role of Salt in Baking.
The Role of Salt in Baking For most cooking, salt is used to add or enhance flavor to a dish or platter. In baking, however, salt plays a far more important role. It not only enhances flavor, but also controls bacteria, strengthens dough by tightening gluten, and prolongs shelf life. Various salts are available for baking, and each form influences how easily the salt blends with dough. Granular, or table, salts are in the form of dense cubes, due to vacuum evaporation. Sea salts and Diamond Crystal kosher salts are formed from surface evaporation, causing flakier pyramid salts. Morton's kosher salt is granular salt that is pressed into flakes by rollers. Each form of salt is different in volume as well as the way they dissolve, mix, and adhere. For example, 1 tablespoon of granular salt is the equivalent of 11/2 tablespoons of Morton's kosher salt or 2 tablespoons of Diamond Crystal kosher salt. Most bakers prefer flaky sea salt and Diamond Crystal kosher salt to granular salt because it provides a greater surface area when blending, allowing for greater distribution. Once an appropriate salt is designated, one must then determine when to add the salt. Salt strengthens and tightens the gluten in dough by adjusting the solubility and swelling capacity of the dough. This increases dough strength and prevents weakness and stickiness while increasing the mixing time
The Oleta River Preserve
THE OLETA RIVER PRESERVE The Oleta River Preserve is a small but important protected site along the Oleta River near Snake Creek. Historically, the Oleta River connected the northern Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean allowing freshwater to reach the sea. Today the Oleta River is the only natural river in Miami-Dade County that has not been dredged and channelized. Its seven miles of shoreline are largely undeveloped, making the Oleta River Corridor a vestige of wilderness in a matrix of urbanization. The extinct Tequesta Indians canoed the waters of the Oleta River over 400 years ago and today, the river still offers a peaceful wilderness experience for modern-day canoeists. A Tequesta village and midden site is preserved nearby as a reminder of the river's past human history. This area now represents one of the last wilderness areas available to wildlife in northern Miami-Dade county and is home to the endangered West Indian manatee and American crocodile. The site was purchased by the Environmentally Endangered Lands program and the Florida Communities Trust in 1995 to expand adjacent coastal resources bordering the Oleta River. Miami-Dade County employees removed exotic pest plants from the site, supervised removal of fill material, and replanted red mangroves and other shoreline vegetation. This will help begin the slow restoration of uninterrupted natural mangrove