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University Degree: Botany

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How plants have adapted or become acclimated to shade.

    5 star(s)

    This uses less energy and resources to construct. Many shade plants (such as ferns) do not produce flowers for the same reason. * Shade leaves have more chlorophyll in the antenna systems to feed more energy to the reaction centres. There is also an increase in the number of reaction centres. * Shade light contains more light in the far-red range. The reaction centre of photosystem II (PSII) absorbs more light from the far-red range than photosystem I (PSI); hence there is a greater proportion of PSII to PSI.

    • Word count: 606
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Heterosporous Plants

    5 star(s)
    • Word count: 918
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Drought conditions, low and high temperatures, increased salt levels, pathogens and insects are common environmental stresses which plants are exposed to. Over time, plants have evolved unique mechanisms to respond to the stresses

    3 star(s)

    RIPs or ribosome inactivating proteins disrups viral replication by deactivating the plants ribosomes, therefore preventing cell replication and therefore also the viral pathogens replication. Hydrolases are present which break down the components of the pathogens and enzyme inhibitors inhibit enzymes which are used by the pathogen in the infection process. Induced plant defences are those defences which are initiated after a pathogen infection has been detected. These defences are chemical changes within the cell wall which cause the formation of papillae, which in fungal attack form reinforced areas around the penetration peg, preventing the full insertion of the peg, Buchanan et al.

    • Word count: 1170
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Biotechnology - Penicillin

    In his research, Duchesne was able to cure typhoid by injecting a subject with P.glaucum, which was a remarkable achievement. But being an unknown, young student, Duchesne was not acknowledged with this discovery, and was prevented from continuing more research due to army research.3 Later similar discoveries were to be met with little attention until the 1920s. In 1928, a British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming was studying the effects of Staphylococci, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.

    • Word count: 601
  5. Effects of salinity in seed germination of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Hordeum vulgare

    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2003) states that salinity has gained prominence as a national environmental issue in recent years, and around 26,000 farmers have salinity problem and try to solve it on their properties in Australia. It can be seen clearly that society conform a serious environmental problem, which need more understanding of salinity effects on plants and solution to this issue. The aim of this experiment is to find out the effects of different concentration salinity on seed germination of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Hordeum vulgare, such as 300 millimolar and 600 millimolar salt compared none salt.

    • Word count: 968
  6. Spectroscopy of Fast Green Solution and Chlorophyll A and B

    Information about the two intensities can be expressed as transmittance. (Vogelman and Evans, 2002) The transmittance is the ratio of the intensity of the exiting light to the entering light. (Jones et al., 2007) This value is expressed as a percentage. Different materials absorb different wavelengths of light. (Karp, 2010) Therefore, the wavelength of maximum absorption by a material is one of the characteristic properties of that material. (Karp, 2010) The transmittance can be related to the absorbance (A) by the formula A is equal to 2 - (log(%T)).

    • Word count: 1696
  7. Free essay

    strategic development

    argue "that macro-environmental conditions set the fundamental context in which industries operate" (Fahey and Narayanan, 1986). The Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, Legal (PESTEL) framework shall be used in order to identify the changes in the external environment that caused decline in the M&S performance in the mid to late 1990's. Political European Committee decision to permit free flow of trade among themselves and other countries under foreign trade regulations makes companies to import their products over time easier than before. M&S competitors took advantage of its higher cost structure and bit off some its market share.

    • Word count: 4500
  8. This essay provides a brief description of neem, while also focusing on the numerous benefits of it in regards to improving human and animal health. Neem (Azadirachta indica), a central Ayurvedic medicine and rising global panacea, is a fast-growing tree

    These can range from eroded hilltops with infertile lands to stony, flat lands and firm laterite. The best results can be yielded from black cotton soil with a pH lower than 8.5, with deep well-drained soil and good sub-soil water. Neem truly is a miracle plant and most every part of it contains powerful chemical properties being proved useful for humanity. The leaf is known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, aids in digestion and possesses excellent use as a carminative, delays the clotting time of blood and used as anodyne for fomenting swollen glands, bruises and sprains.

    • Word count: 1220
  9. Examination of Protozoan Cultures to Determine Cellular Structure and Motion Pattern

    They all have varying shapes, sizes, and survival strategies. For example, some may "hunt" small particles of food such as bacteria or algae; whereas others may be parasitic, inhabiting larger organisms. Despite their differences, all protists have several characteristics in common. In addition to a nucleus or nuclei to house their genetic material, most protists have mitochondria for metabolic functions, and vacuoles for digestion and excretion. With the help of these and other cellular structures, protists may feed, grow, and reproduce.

    • Word count: 5000
  10. Work shope on plant Cryopreservation

    The property of whole plant and plant tissue to regenerate from cryoreserved cells make this technique suitable for preserving and conserving plant genetic resources. This technique finds application in the vegetative propagation of many plants (which produce recalcitrant seeds i.e. which lose their viability at low freezing point) and crops like potato. Some species of plants survive during cryopreservation using a specific protocol but on the other hand some do not. The expected reason of non viability (after cryopreservation) associated with some plant could be due to the cellular heterogeneity, inadequate tissue culture regimes, genotype, and physiological differences.

    • Word count: 2463
  11. Fostering Local Sustainable Agriculture

    They received very little attention at that time from the agriculture community. In the 1970s, many environmental and sustainable agriculture organizations were created in response to the blossoming global concerns about the environment. Much of these organizations were based primarily on volunteer labour and were beginning to have an impact on the media and the public awareness. Many of these organizations focused their activities on local issues and relied on the local support. In the 1980s there was a dramatic increase in the number of these organizations and of promotional incentives within the local agriculture.

    • Word count: 2450
  12. To what extent does plasticity of dipterocarp seedlings affect growth and survival in the tropical rainforest environment?

    (Ashton 1964, Whitmore 1984) There are several species of Dipterocarps and they vary widely in physiology and shade tolerance (Ashton 1964, Barker et al 1997, Scholes et al 1997). Dipterocarp timber has an enormous economic value, and as a result of logging there have been unparallelled reductions of these trees in forests of Sabah (Bischoff et al 2005). Knowledge of dipterocarp regeneration is not only valuable for understanding the dynamic processes of the rainforest but it is essential for efforts to preserve and restore these species rich forests. However such knowledge is neither adequate nor complete (Leffler & Enquist, 2002).

    • Word count: 3398
  13. Agricultural Wastes Research

    between June 28 and July 5 19 3.7 Shoot Development between July 5 and July 12 19 3.8 Shoot Development between July 12 and July 19 19 3.9 Shoot Development between July 19 and July 30 19 4 Shoot System Development with Time (cm/ days) 20 5.1 Girth Development between May 31 and June 7 21 5.2 Girth Development between June 7 and June 14 21 5.3 Girth Development between June 14 and June 21 21 5.4 Girth Development between June 21 and June 28 21 5.5 Girth Development between June 28 and July 5 21 5.6 Girth Development between

    • Word count: 7060
  14. A review of the development, production and post harvest requirements of Gerberas

    Florists would also be able to use the more unusual varieties of Gerbera, such as the Gerondo(r) (figure 1) or the Pomponi (figure 2) in specialist arrangements. Figure 1: Gerbera Gerrondo(r) Figure 2: Gerbera Pomponi Sponge Bob. Source: Flower Council of Holland (2005) Source: Bruffin (2007) 3.0 Production: Most Gerberas are grown under protection even in warmer climates such as South Carolina in the USA where there is demand for Gerberas early in the year for Valentines Day (Dufault et al., 1990).

    • Word count: 3877
  15. describes the aims, objectives & Ownership of the Burnaston car Manufacturing plant, Toyota.

    Which means a proportion of Toyota's shares is owned by banks and the larger business corporation. The Burnaston Plant Is owned By Toyota PLC along with Toyota's Engine Manufacturing plant at Deeside. These plants are the only 2 Toyota sites that are based in the UK. Aims of Toyota PLC > The main aim of Toyota PLC is probably the same as any other non-charitable or non-government run business, that is to expand and Increase Profit Margin. > Toyota PLC's mission is to "ensure quality" & to manufacturer & sell the 'best car' to a specific market on a global basis.

    • Word count: 906
  16. Wye Valley Coursework

    Improve deciduous wood by thinning This would mean fewer branches of the trees, which then results in more sunlight which encourages growth for the ground cover and the other trees in the woodland. 6. Control Bracken Bracken is a plant which normally grows in woodlands like Russel's Inclosure. The time we went, which was late spring, was the growing season for Bracken. Controlling the growth of Bracken means that there is space for other varieties of plants to grow rather than just one.

    • Word count: 3804
  17. Describe the major pathways and transformations involved in the atmospheric transport of Sulphur, produced as SO2 in combustion processes. Outline the major impacts of SO2 upon plants.

    These attempted to improve the local environment around them by building taller and taller stacks to disperse the gases higher into the atmosphere. Consequently, gases were spread more thinly, but over a much larger area. Legislative controls on emissions of SO2 have forced the introduction of desulphurisation methods in some countries, amongst which fluidised gas and lime based systems have been used. SO2 is dispersed from high stacks and its residual time in the atmosphere depends on environmental factors such as humidity, solar irradiance, and its solubility.

    • Word count: 1530
  18. Determination of Absorbance Spectra of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Introduction Photosynthetic pigments enable plants to absorb light, a process which is essential for production of energy through photosynthesis. Without this process, life as we know it would not exist. At certain wavelengths of light, pigments absorb photons while at other wavelengths photons are reflected. As a result, the pigments appear coloured with the colour of the pigment relating to which photons are reflected in which colour portion of the spectrum (Knox, 2005). The pigments' pattern of absorption, called its absorption spectrum, is a distinguishing feature of each pigment and one that we aimed to demonstrate in this experiment.

    • Word count: 1223
  19. 'Genetic Engineering: Friend or Fiend'

    Before GM products were developed, there would have been competition between the weeds and the crops for the nutrients and minerals in the soil. This caused the yield of crop production to be lower. [1] The United States is the most profitable country containing the largest amount of GM grown crops. The main modified crops are the herbicides and insecticide resistant plants e.g. soybeans. [2] Insects and pest*s* are a big problem in farming. They reduce the world crop production by over 13% every year. Hence the insecticide resistant plants were produced in aid to stop the decline in production.

    • Word count: 1281
  20. The Effect of Stomata Opening on Plant Transpiration

    Introduction: Transpiration is the loss of water through stomata openings on the surfaces of plant leaves. It is crucial for the survival of plants since it aids in water transport through roots, stems, and leaves, creating a suction force. The stomata, minute pores controlled by guard cells, are also essential for gas exchange. Carbon dioxide enters these pores, and oxygen exits as a product of photosynthesis. Stomata generally open at daytime and close at nighttime. Many environmental factors also affect stomata openings for transpiration. These factors include low humidity, wind, high temperature, and light, which increase the rate of transpiration.

    • Word count: 1908
  21. Investigating the inhibitory effect of reserpine on locomotor activity in mice, and its reversal by laevo-DOPA (L-DOPA).

    plus Chlorpromazine (0.5mg/kg). Test made 100 mins after administration E Chlorpromazine (0.5mg/kg) treated rat. Test made 100 mins after administration Results: Effect of drugs on mouse movement Table 1: showing the number of revolutions performed by each mouse Mouse A Mouse B Mouse C Mouse D Mouse E 1 44 20 8 55 58 2 43 22 3 66 59 3 51 18 2 45 65 4 46 13 7 46 69 5 42 23 6 50 55 Mean 45.2 19.2 5.2 52.4 61.2 S.D 3.56 3.96 2.59 8.56 5.67 S.E.M 1.89 1.99 1.61 2.93 2.38 Graph 1: showing the mean number of revolutions performed by each mouse The graph shows that the administration of reserpine causes a large decrease in the mean number of revolutions performed by the mouse.

    • Word count: 1572
  22. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis

    Chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis. This can be proved by studying a variegated leaf. It is however very difficult to study how different levels of chlorophyll in the plant will affect it's photosynthesis rate. This is because in a variegated leaf the cells either contain chlorophyll or they don't. Carbon dioxide concentration will directly affect the rate of photosynthesis as it is used in the photosynthesis reaction. It is also easy to change the amount of carbon dioxide that the plant receives. Light is also directly used in the photosynthesis reaction and is easy to change in normal lab conditions.

    • Word count: 2646
  23. Conflict over a resource - An area of outstanding beauty

    Not only were there surrounding areas of local inhabitants but two very large companies who needed the water for everyday industrial use. Albright and Wilson is a large consumer of water which supplied acids such as phosphoric acid for drinks companies such as coca cola, and they also supplied different types of detergents for industrial use. Another large company in the area is sellafield nuclear plant who use ennerdale lakes water supply in urgent need in case of emergencies as a course of back up.

    • Word count: 2168
  24. Research Proposal for Aspects of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Normal flower color varies between solid white petals to green petals only tinged with white. Manipulation of flower color is of interest not because of any potential ornamental value, but because of the mechanisms of gene expression in the visible appearance of the yellow pigment anthocyanin.

    • Word count: 386
  25. Coconuts (Coco Nucifera) - Origin and Current Locales.

    This explains how coconuts were growing and being used by Old World natives in the Americas before Columbus arrived. Coconuts can be found in any lowland tropical and subtropical region around the world. They thrive where annual precipitation is low and around beaches because coconuts are not affected by salt water of the ocean, like most other plants. Coconuts use the tides of the ocean to their benefit by helping them disperse and germinate, as mentioned above. Their origin was the Indian Ocean region, but, because of their dispersion methods, coconuts can be found around the world. The palm tree naturally dispersed itself into Africa, Central America, and other tropical beach regions.

    • Word count: 1214

"The colour and shape of flowers are a precise record of what bees find attractive."

-Frederick Turner

If you'd take a Venus flytrap over a dolphin any day, then maybe you'd enjoy studying botany at university. Students of botany study the basis of plant life, and the ecosystems that plants thrive in. They also get a chance to engage with newer topics in the field, like GM crops. You can study botany on its own as a plant biology degree, or as part of another biological sciences degree.

You'll have to go beyond stiff, plodding reports to excel in botany. To enliven your writing, consider studying Marked by Teachers' collection of biological science essays. The worked examples will show you how to do things right, and which mistakes to steer clear of. Stay the course, and your writing will flower into something much greater than it was.

Students studying botany can expect to get some sun between labs and lectures, because many degrees will include a field work component. After graduation you can look forward to further studies, or perhaps a career in agriculture, horticulture or conservation.


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