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University Degree: Botany

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  1. A Short Formal Report Looking Into Setting Up A Chemical Plant.

    Firstly the company will have to pay for the land that the plant will be built on, as well as all of the construction costs, including the building materials and the labour, the human effort, to build the plant. Then the company will have to pay for all of the capital, which is the equipment used in manufacturing the chemicals, as well as the buildings, and the labour used to run the plant, such as scientists. They will also have to pay for the land, which is the raw materials used to make the chemicals, and the transport of the finished chemicals to the customer will also have to be paid for.

    • Word count: 1282
  2. Siting an Aluminium Processing Plant.

    These are purified using electrolysis to make aluminium. Electrolyte- aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite at 950?C. Cathode is made of graphite (lining of cell) and the reaction is that at the cathode the aluminium ions receive electrons: 4Al3+ +12e- ? 4Al The aluminium atoms collect together, and drop to the bottom of the cell as molten metal. This is run off at intervals. Anode is also made of graphite. This time the reaction is that at the anodes the oxygen ions give up electrons: 6O2- ? 3O2 +12e- Oxygen gas bubbles are given off. But unfortunately it attacks the graphite anodes and eats them away, so they must be replaced from t9ime to time.

    • Word count: 1291
  3. To investigate the effects of Light on Species diversity in an Old and a New Coppice.

    Trees shadow other plants around them as they also need to photosynthesise to produce energy for themselves. The chloroplasts in the leaves try to capture as much light as possible for the plant, so this does not allow much light to reach the ground. The younger coppices would contain undeveloped trees which would be smaller with less foliage, and so would not shadow the ground as much. I might also expect the plants in the old coppice to transpire less.

    • Word count: 2479
  4. Analyse The Roll Of Human Activity In Plant Succession.

    When deforestation removes an area of vegetation the plant succession has to start again, this is where secondary succession will occur. This is where plants will grow on an area that had previously been vegetated. If humans create fires in vegetation dominated areas it can have a devastating affect. It can occur in grasslands, moorlands, forests and heaths. The climate plays a big part on how bad the fire can be. If it is windy then the fires will move much move quickly and will burn faster.

    • Word count: 727
  5. To investigate the soil type found at selected sites on the South West facing hillside and identify the factors important in the formation of the soil types found at these selected sites.

    A Dutch auger was used at each site to bore into the soil. The soil removed showed the differences in colour and depth at each horizon. Soil texture at each horizon was tested using a finger assessment chart. A BDH kit was used to measure soil pH in the different soil horizons. These tests were carried out to determine the soil types and properties at the selected sites. An interrupted line transect was used to sample percentage vegetation cover with quadrats placed at 10m intervals along the transect.

    • Word count: 1274
  6. The effect of light intensity on diversity of planrs on woodland floors.

    Traditional uses for coppiced timber include bean sticks, firewood, baskets, tool handles and brooms. Many centuries ago, coppicing provided people with the timber they needed to live. If coppicing is done on a rotational basis in woodland it increases biodiversity by allowing ground flora to flourish in freshly coppiced areas, which get more sunlight at ground level. As the trees regroup, other areas of the woodland are coppiced so there is always a mix of dark and light areas at ground level.

    • Word count: 2621
  7. The legalization of Marijuana.

    William Buckley says, "Pot is harmful, but people should not go to jail for smoking it". Buckley was a college professor at Columbian University and admitted to smoking marijuana on a national television show in 1973. At the time Buckley was quoted to say, "There were a half-million arrests due to pot use in 1973 respectively -this makes the realization that there has been a breakdown in communication between the public and the police". Over two decades later, Buckley's words still ring true today.

    • Word count: 1286
  8. To see what affect trampling has on the diversity of plants, their abundance, and growth and to see the difference in varieties between a trampled and less trampled area.

    Involved, we needed to see, on average, how many of each plant were in the trampled and non-trampled area. We could then compare them. Prediction : - There would be a greater range of plants in larger abundance, in an area that has rare trampling, as oppose to an area which is frequently trampled because the earth is less compacted so plants will lose air and nutrients. Also, in the area of less trampling, there would be more, of the taller growing plants and flowering plants and less little plants because less light is available to them. In the more trampled area, there would be more low growing grasses, and rosette plants.

    • Word count: 930
  9. Chemicals and the environment

    It is therefore important to control unwanted organisms that cause disease in order to obtain a good harvest. This is why the use of pesticides is extremely important in farming but also dangerous as observed below. By their very nature, most pesticides create some risk or harm to humans, animals or the environment because they are designed to kill or otherwise adversely affect living organisms. At the same time, pesticides are useful to society because of their ability to kill potential disease causing organisms and control insects, weeds and other pests. www.epa.gov.html (office of pesticide programs) Pesticides may be divided into 3 categories.

    • Word count: 1424
  10. Reproduction, sexual or asexual, is a means of survival of a particular species on the face of a planet. Angiosperms have many ways of reproducing themselves. It is of no surprise that the sex organs of a plant are in their flowers.

    The stored 'goodies' and RNA kick into action and start the most probably the most rapid growth of any plant cell. A tube known as the pollen tube grows from each pollen grain. This pollen tube grows toward the embryo sac. Eventually two sperm cells are deposited into the embryo sac where they fuse with the egg and form a zygote. Pollen germination is one of the most important processes insuring that a zygote is formed and the plant species continues and does not become extinct.

    • Word count: 623
  11. Comparison of numbers of organisms In Coniferous And Deciduous Woodlands

    This method was used because it was the most reliable, and ensured that all organisms present were removed from the sample in the tullgren funnel. Some very small organisms that were not affected by the drying effect of the bulb were not counted. During the experiment predation between organisms were occurring, this was not accounted for. The average test and the t-test were used, because two averages were being compared and there were less than 25 unmatched organisms in each sample.

    • Word count: 6025
  12. Surveying the Distribution and Abundance of Plants in Different Coppices

    Also, a different light intensity could create different numbers of plants in the coppices, as well as causing them to be spread out over a wider area, creating more competition and causing some species to receive less light than they need for photosynthesis and won't survive. Temperature- Different temperatures may provide optimum conditions for different plant species, and so they will have greater abundance and will be more concentrated than other plant species. Soil Temperature- different temperatures in the two coppices could encourage different species of plants to grow and thrive, and cause others to die out.

    • Word count: 1603
  13. To examine plant succession across the umbra sand dunes at Magilligan. We set up a main Hypothesis which states "Sand dunes at Magilligan exhibit characteristics typical of psamoseres".

    We selected each characteristic individually and set up a sub hypothesis for each, as shown above. We discussed sampling methods and decided to use stratified sampling; using a transect. We chose this method because the Sand dunes are of different ages and we are looking at the changes from the youngest to the oldest. We sampled each dunes crest as it has the same environmental conditions at each crest. To compare each crest the conditions have to be similar, we studied ten points along a Transect. We were put into groups to share the responsibilities of the field work and for safety reasons.

    • Word count: 738
  14. The Effect of Temperature on the Speed of Response of Dionaea muscipula

    APPARATUS: - 5 Venus Flytraps (each with at least 4 open, trigger able traps) - Thermometer - Stop Watch - Human Hair - Heat Lights PROCESS: 1) All 5 VFT's were placed in an environment which had a temperature of 20�C and left for 15 mins to allow the VFT to acclimatise. 2) One VFT was triggered through twice-touching the human hair on the trigger hair located on the inside of the leaf. The period of movement of the VFT from the second touch of the hair until the initial movement of the VFT is completed was timed and recorded in seconds.

    • Word count: 1762
  15. My summer garden

    Before me would lie the carpet of grass, usually brown and withered, which would dampen my mood, but this morbid image would never overtake the entire stretch of grass. The sides of the garden would be lined with plants and flowers as high as me. There was not much variation of colour, but I was content with the lush greens of the large leaves. Overshadowing those were larger trees left to grow at their own will, they obscured the dull fence from sight which I liked; I hated any reminder of humanity whilst I was in my own world of harmonious tranquillity.

    • Word count: 1157
  16. The Commercial Use Of Plant Hormones

    The overall plant growth increases in the presence of auxin, as the auxin promotes stem growth in the region behind the apex. Apical dominance can be achieved as well, this means the plant can be shaped, and the auxin inhibits lateral bud growth. The apical dominance will lead to plants with a conical shape. Fruit set and growth can be improved; tuber and bulb germination can be quickened. Commercial weed control can also be achieved with excess auxin being added, it leads to intensified growth, the plant in question literally "grows to death."

    • Word count: 532
  17. Comparing a Countryside in Summer & Winter

    Branches full with sycamore leaves stretched out from the woodland and tapped on the tattered, multi-paned windows. The panes were of old-fashioned thickness and grubby due to long term wear and tear. Bright rays of sunlight beamed down from a cloudless sky onto the cottage, heating the thickly thatched roof until the rafters below cracked. The sunlight dazzled off the white wash walls of the tiny building. Summer swallows perched on the roof and pecked at the thatch. Many a nest had been made in the thick straw roof that spring. Summer flowers bloomed along the winding path and picket fence membrane.

    • Word count: 760
  18. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture of the tropical regions demonstrates a successful environment for many plants and animals.

    Although the motion carries then the introduction of predators and parasites in order to control the species. Firstly one should reflect carefully on the actually area of the tropics. It is known to be a hot, moist biome found near Earth's equator. The world's largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture of the tropical regions demonstrates a successful environment for many plants and animals. Tropical rainforests contain the greatest biodiversity in the world. Over 15 million species of plants and animals live within this biome.

    • Word count: 1417
  19. Induced defence responses against herbivores. The aim of the project was to study the effects of jasmonic acid, one of the plant hormones involved in induced plant responses, when applied to tomato seeds before they are sown

    The cells surrounding the wound site, although not being directly damaged, will be under considerable stress as they will be acting as a barrier to prevent plant pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which causes crown call disease on the stems of plants and trees, to enter the wound site. The barriers are formed via the process of cell wall strengthening which is partly achieved by the rapid linking of existing cell wall proteins (Bradley et al., 1992), then after the initial response, by the surrounding cells, the wound site is sealed by a calcium-induced callose synthesis process, which blocks the plasmodesmata, preventing the movement of molecules between neighbouring cells.

    • Word count: 2255
  20. Mechanisms of insect resistance induced by treatment of Lycopersicon esculentum seeds by jasmonic acid

    and have also been found to be commonly used in plants as marker genes to the induced wound response. In their natural environment, damage is inflicted upon plants by many means such as drought effects, the effects of increased salinity, but most notably by herbivore grazing. To combat the grazing of herbivores, plants have evolved unique mechanisms to reduce the damage inflicted upon them. Not only do plants need to combat the direct effects of herbivore grazing, but also the indirect effects.

    • Word count: 5222

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