Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform inorganic compounds to organic compounds.
Introduction Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform inorganic compounds to organic compounds. There are primarily two pathways of photosynthesis. One being light reactions, driven by light energy, product of this process is ATP and reduced electron carrier [NADPH + H+]. The second pathway is called calvin-Benson cycle, this cycle does not need light and instead it uses ATP, NADPH + H+ and CO2. The rate of photosynthesis is affected by a number of factors including light quality and quantity, CO2, temperature, availability of water, and availability of nutrients. If the conditions that the plant needs are improved the rate of photosynthesis should increase and vice versa. Carbon dioxide concentration will directly affect the rate of photosynthesis as it is used in the photosynthesis reaction. Light is also directly used in the photosynthesis reaction. Carbon Dioxide and Light are the factors that will be changed in the experiment. Photosynthesis Reaction: Materials and method: Materials used in this experiment are as follows: I) Syringes. II) Cork borer and rubber stopper III) Beaker IV) Light filters [green, blue, red] V) Light source [fluorescent] VI) Sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO3] 0.2% solution VII) Broad bean seedlings. In a nutshell, by the use of vacuum, produced O2 [by photosynthesis] is sucked out of the
Fieldwork at Ainsdale National Nature Reserve; Succession in Sand Dunes.
Fieldwork at Ainsdale National Nature Reserve; Succession in Sand Dunes. Succession is a process, which occurs over time. Succession takes place over 100s of years; changes in soil and vegetation at a single location are a long lengthy process. The sand dunes in Ainsdale have undergone primary succession. This is when plants and animals colonize a previously deserted area; coastal sand dunes such as Ainsdale provide an exceptional environment for the study of primary succession. The vegetated dunes within the system have developed on an area of previously uncolonized sand. Due to the lengthy process of succession, time is replaced with distance. The dunes nearer the coast are younger than those further away. The diagram below shows a model of primary succession at a sand dune. Definitions - Strand line- the sand is dry and salty and lacking in plant nutrients. Only very specialist plants grow here such as sea rocket. Embryo dunes- the substrate is still extremely inhospitable to plant growth and contain newly formed sand dunes. Mobile dunes- the dunes grow upwards and due to the increasing distance from the coast the diversity of plant life also increases. Blowouts- where protection against the wind is removed, sand is picked up from a strong wind and deposited elsewhere, leaving a 'hole'. Fixed dunes- when the vegetation has developed so that it forms a more or
Biotechnology - Penicillin
What is biotechnology? Biotechnology is the use of technology to construct products or perform tasks through the use of biological systems and organisms.1Through history we have gained more knowledge of how biotechnology is applied and have refined and created new techniques that have benefited different areas, such as agriculture and gene technology. The application of fungal products has been in use for hundreds of years in the production of foods such as cheese and soy products. Penicillium mould (Penicillium chrysogenum2 ) contains the antibiotic substance penicillin, which was successfully isolated in 1945. Since Ancient times, moulds have been used to treat infection. Ernest Duchesne was a physician who discovered through experimentation, that Penicillium glaucum was able to destroy the bacteria, Escherichia coli. In his research, Duchesne was able to cure typhoid by injecting a subject with P.glaucum, which was a remarkable achievement. But being an unknown, young student, Duchesne was not acknowledged with this discovery, and was prevented from continuing more research due to army research.3 Later similar discoveries were to be met with little attention until the 1920s. In 1928, a British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming was studying the effects of Staphylococci, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. He hypothesised that the mould, Penicillium notatum, was
Effects of salinity in seed germination of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Hordeum vulgare
Effects of salinity in seed germination of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Hordeum vulgare Introduction Land and water are essential for agricultural production, when water supply is enough for the plants, then the quality of water, soil and environment is most important to the plants (Villagra and Cavagnaro 2005). For the purpose of this report, Salinity can be defined as the build-up of salts in the soil and water or other media, which also can affect plants germination and growth. Salt is effect to all living species, plants and animals are forced to suffer from caustic amounts of salt in the freshwater supplies. Salt significantly reduces some of salt sensitive plant growth, root and shoot growth are reduced and tip burn is increased. The reason of this is salts can produce decreased water uptake, instability in metabolism and nutrient ingestion (Villagra and Cavagnaro 2005). For example, strawberries, lettuce, and avocados are especially sensitive to salt content in their irrigation water (Branson and Gustafson 1971). Australian Bureau of Statistics (2003) states that salinity has gained prominence as a national environmental issue in recent years, and around 26,000 farmers have salinity problem and try to solve it on their properties in Australia. It can be seen clearly that society conform a serious environmental problem, which need more understanding of salinity
Spectroscopy of Fast Green Solution and Chlorophyll A and B
Spectroscopy of Fast Green Solution and Chlorophyll A and B Introduction The purpose of this lab is to be introduced to measure the concentration of an unknown solution using spectroscopy and to isolate the individual pigments of a chloroplast extract to measure the light absorption of chlorophyll A and B. Fast green is Light is a photon, a particle without mass however is a wave. (Petrucci, 2010) In these experiments the visible light spectrum having a wavelength between 400 nm to 700 nm was used. A spectrophotometer separates light into distinct bands of energy, allowing on to focus a particular band of energy to measure its absorption from 0 to 100%. (Jones et al., 2007) The spectrophotometer tells the observer the absorbance based on whatever wavelength one wants to find. (Jones et al., 2007) An essential part of observing a substance under a spectrophotometer is that of using a blank. The role of a blank and the spectrophotometer is to set the absorbance of the spectrophotometer to zero allowing the absorbance of one substance to be shown. (Jones et al., 2007) In experiment one; water was used as the blank. Based on the results from the spectrophotometer, on is able to make a concentration curve to find the concentration of the unknown solution. (Jones et al., 2007) A spectrophotometer is an instrument that measures the intensity of the light entering a sample and
Examination of Protozoan Cultures to Determine Cellular Structure and Motion Pattern
Examination of Protozoan Cultures to Determine Cellular Structure and Motion Pattern Abstract Protozoans are unicellular eukaryotes with either plant- or animal-like characteristics. Through careful observation, we analyzed various protozoan cultures in order to identify characteristics associated with cell structure and movement of these one-celled organisms. We found that Protists exhibit certain characteristics that allow them to be categorized into different groups, mainly determined by their locomotion patterns. Despite differences in locomotion and the varying plant-like and animal-like organelles, all protists share key characteristics and functions that allow them to feed, grow, and reproduce--processes essential for survival and common to complex organisms. Introduction Unicellular eukaryotes belong to the kingdom Protista, and are often referred to as "protists" or "protozoans." The name "protozoan" means "first animal," but eukaryotes may display either plant or animal-like characteristics, or a combination of both. Although unicellular, they have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, making them functionally complex despite their small size. Each small protist is a self-supporting unit, carrying out all the processes for survival in just one cell. They thrive on moisture and can be found on moist soil and in fresh and marine bodies of water. There are about
Abstract. The theory of optimal foraging and its relation to central foraging was examined by using the beaver as a model. Beaver food choice was examined by noting the species of woody vegetation, status (chewed vs. not-chewed), distance from the water, and circumference of trees near a beaver pond in North Carolina. Beavers avoided certain species of trees and preferred trees that were close to the water. No preference for tree circumference was noted. These data suggest that beaver food choice concurs with the optimal foraging theory. Introduction In this lab, we explore the theory of optimal foraging and the theory of central place foraging using beavers as the model animal. Foraging refers to the mammalian behavior associated with searching for food. The optimal foraging theory assumes that animals feed in a way that maximizes their net rate of energy intake per unit time (Pyke et al. 1977). An animal may either maximize its daily energy intake (energy maximizer) or minimize the time spent feeding (time minimizer) in order to meet minimum requirements. Herbivores commonly behave as energy maximizers (Belovsky 1986) and accomplish this maximizing behavior by choosing food that is of high quality and has low-search and low-handling time (Pyke et al. 1977). The central place theory is used to describe animals that collect food and store it in a fixed location in their
To examine plant succession across the umbra sand dunes at Magilligan. We set up a main Hypothesis which states "Sand dunes at Magilligan exhibit characteristics typical of psamoseres".
Module 3 Techniques in geography Aim: To examine plant succession across the umbra sand dunes at Magilligan. We set up a main Hypothesis which states "Sand dunes at Magilligan exhibit characteristics typical of psamoseres". We then set up 4 sub hypothesis these state: - "Climate changes inland (shade, shelter, and temperature)" 2-"The soil is modified by the accumulation of dead organic matter during succession. 3-"Diversity of plant species increases during the succession" 4-"Plant adaptations change inland" Planning: In Module 1 we were studying ecosystems, plant succession and we decided to look at primary succession on a sand dune environment. We looked at characteristics; how a dune is formed. We looked at vegetation, micro-climate and soil. We selected each characteristic individually and set up a sub hypothesis for each, as shown above. We discussed sampling methods and decided to use stratified sampling; using a transect. We chose this method because the Sand dunes are of different ages and we are looking at the changes from the youngest to the oldest. We sampled each dunes crest as it has the same environmental conditions at each crest. To compare each crest the conditions have to be similar, we studied ten points along a Transect. We were put into groups to share the responsibilities of the field work and for safety reasons. Each group would take turns in
Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis Aims I plan to investigate how different factors affect the rate of photosynthesis. Background Information The rate of photosynthesis is affected by a number of factors including light levels, temperature, availability of water, and availability of nutrients. If the conditions that the plant needs are improved the rate of photosynthesis should increase. The maximum rate of photosynthesis will be constrained by a limiting factor. This factor will prevent the rate of photosynthesis from rising above a certain level even if other conditions needed for photosynthesis are improved. This limiting factor will control the maximum possible rate of the photosynthetic reaction. For instance, increasing the temperature from 10°C to 20°C could double the rate of photosynthesis as the plant's enzymes will be closer to their optimum working temperature. As the temperature is increased, molecules in the cells will be moving at a faster rate due to kinetic theory. If the temperature is raised above a certain level, the rate of photosynthesis will drop as the plant's enzymes are denatured. They will therefore be more likely to join onto the enzymes and react. The amount of water available to the plant will affect the rate of photosynthesis. If the plant does not have enough water, the plant's stomata will shut and the plant will be
To investigate the effects of abiotic factors specifically pH on the abundance of marram grass.
Aim: To investigate the effects of abiotic factors specifically pH on the abundance of marram grass. Succession is the gradual change in an inhabitable terrain by which organisms are changed and replaced eventually forming a climax community habitable by many organisms. Primary succession begins with a barren terrain is inhabited by a pioneer species which colonises and allows the once inhabitable land to be occupied by other organisms. The succession I will be looking at will begin with a sandy environment, a psammosere. The main pioneer specie here is marram grass (A.arenaria). Pioneer species often have many adaptations that allow them to colonise in an environment that many other organisms couldn't. Marram grass is not different. As it colonises in a psammosere it has many xeromorphic adaptations. The plant is able to stabilise the sand and as it decomposes, it is able to provide nutrients to sand allowing it to become inhabitable by other plant species. The ability of a pioneer species such as marram grass to germinate grow and reproduce is called an Ecesis. Marram grass is a R-selected species. This means that in it's short lifetime it will reproduce a lot. During my experiment I will be investigating the effects of abiotic factors, specifically pH on the percentage abundance of marram grass. Null hypothesis: there is no correlation between pH and the abundance of