Wye Valley Coursework
Wye Valley Coursework Introduction: The wood I visited was called Russell's Inclosure. It is located at 6110 on the OS map Wye Valley and Forest of Dean. It is 80 - 120 metres above sea level and 4 kilometres east of Coleford and 3/4 kilometres north east of Cinderford. Map showing the location of Russell's Inclosure Hypothesis: "The way a woodland is managed affects its ecosystem" Section One: What evidence of management is there in coniferous and deciduous woodland? Management is. There are four types of management. These are Habitat management, Estate management, Recreational management and Community and educational management. Each type of management is undertaken for different reasons and is made for sustaining different things. The following chart shows you the work of the different managements in the woodland and shows the work that it does. Habitat Management Reasons . Sites for tree planting carefully chosen. Different trees require different habitats; therefore tree sites need to be carefully chosen to ensure that the tree receives the correct amount of sunshine, rainfall, and nutrients in order for them to grow healthy. 2. New planting areas fenced Some animals eat plants in order for survival; this could mean eating new plants, as they are easily edible due to their size. By fencing of new planting sites there will be fewer animals that can eat the new
Analyse The Roll Of Human Activity In Plant Succession.
Analyse The Roll Of Human Activity In Plant Succession I am going to be discussing the role that human activity has to play in plant succession. Plant succession is where vegetation in a particular location changes in a sequence of steps over time involving different plant communities. Plant succession starts when an area has been cleared of vegetation. There are both positive and negative roles that humans can play in plant succession, and I will be discussing both of these. There are a number of negative roles that humans play in plant succession. Deforestation is where humans will clear a mass of vegetation for reasons such as a growth in population and needing the land for farming etc. The affect that this can have on plant succession is that it is interrupting the changes over time and is stopping the plant succession before it has had the chance to reach a stable equilibrium. When deforestation removes an area of vegetation the plant succession has to start again, this is where secondary succession will occur. This is where plants will grow on an area that had previously been vegetated. If humans create fires in vegetation dominated areas it can have a devastating affect. It can occur in grasslands, moorlands, forests and heaths. The climate plays a big part on how bad the fire can be. If it is windy then the fires will move much move quickly and will burn faster.
An investigation to compare the number of Chironomus sp in a woodland pond compared to a meadow pond.
Abstract I carried out an investigation to compare the number of Chironomus sp in a woodland pond compared to a meadow pond. My hypothesis was, there would be a larger number of Chironomus sp in a woodland pond compared to a meadow pond. It is proven that Chironomus sp likes to live in areas with a high mud depth, high temperature and a low light intensity which are all factors of the woodland pond. 45 samples were taken from each pond with fishing net and a tray. The average number of Chironomus sp in the woodland equaled 11.92 while the average for the meadow pond was 1.26. The Mann-Whitney test showed a total score of 225 for the woodland pond, and 0 for the meadow pond. This meant I was able to prove my hypothesis correct. Introduction My Experiment I am carrying out an experiment to compare the number of Chironomus sp in a pond situated in the middle of woodland, it is covered by trees; the water is shallow with a lot of mud. Compared to a pond situated in the middle of the grassland and has many different species of plants growing from it; the water is deeper than the woodland pond and has more sunlight shining on it. Hypothesis There will be a larger number of Chironomus sp found in a woodland pond compared to the meadow pond. Null hypothesis There will be no difference in Chironomus sp in the woodland pond compared with the meadow pond. Background
Comparing a Countryside in Summer & Winter
Comparing a Countryside in Summer & Winter The sound of the dawn chorus broke the harsh grip of night, leaving way for another fine day where the air was crisp and bright. Tiny tanned sparrows skipped along the concrete path of the cottage as a magpie flew silently overhead. The wide expanse of woodland at the back of the secluded hermitage, stood shady and merciful to the heat. Rabbits darted between ferns and foxgloves. Voles and dormice scurried across the forest floor avoiding larger carnivores. A single stag strode through the trees, demanding respect as it reached toward the outstretched arms of the trees. The scene was enchanting. The cottage was set into the grassy bank. This reduced the size significantly. Branches full with sycamore leaves stretched out from the woodland and tapped on the tattered, multi-paned windows. The panes were of old-fashioned thickness and grubby due to long term wear and tear. Bright rays of sunlight beamed down from a cloudless sky onto the cottage, heating the thickly thatched roof until the rafters below cracked. The sunlight dazzled off the white wash walls of the tiny building. Summer swallows perched on the roof and pecked at the thatch. Many a nest had been made in the thick straw roof that spring. Summer flowers bloomed along the winding path and picket fence membrane. The garden was overgrown. Dandelions sprouted up
The Commercial Use Of Plant Hormones
The Commercial Use Of Plant Hormones A phytohormone is a natural plant substance, which controls plant activities. They are synthesised in one place and translocated. They trigger major plant responses; the main five are auxin, ethene, cytokinin, gibberellic acid and abscissic acid. Plant growth regulators, include plant hormones, both natural and synthetic and have many uses in greenhouse production. Auxins were the first plant hormones to be discovered, they stimulate the elongation and growth of cells. They also influence the development of vascular tissue and fruits. Synthetic auxins are used to stimulate root development on stem cuttings for asexual propagation of woody plant species; this means that horticulturists can produce woody plant species quicker for sale. The overall plant growth increases in the presence of auxin, as the auxin promotes stem growth in the region behind the apex. Apical dominance can be achieved as well, this means the plant can be shaped, and the auxin inhibits lateral bud growth. The apical dominance will lead to plants with a conical shape. Fruit set and growth can be improved; tuber and bulb germination can be quickened. Commercial weed control can also be achieved with excess auxin being added, it leads to intensified growth, the plant in question literally "grows to death." Auxins are also used to prevent pre harvest fruit drop. Ethene
Determination of Absorbance Spectra of Photosynthetic Pigments
Determination of Absorbance Spectra of Photosynthetic Pigments Abstract This experiment tested the hypothesis that the absorbance of light by chlorophyll a would not be equal to the absorbance by chlorophyll b at a wavelength of 480nm. Following extraction of lipid soluble pigments from silver beet by acetone and petroleum ether and separation via chromatography, the light absorbance of the individual pigments at various wavelengths was determined by spectrophotometry. Light absorption by chlorophyll a was observed to peak at 420nm and 660nm while that of chlorophyll b peaked at 440 nm and 600nm. Mean values for class results indicated that chlorophyll b (0.09) absorbed twice the amount of photons as did chlorophyll a (0.03) at a wavelength of 480nm. Since the results of t-testing gave a value (1.359) lower than the critical t- value (2.447), the results suggest that absorption values for chlorophyll a and b at 480nm were not significantly different, thus supporting acceptance of the null hypothesis. However, since our results are similar to reported literature values and support the literature documented fact that pigments do not absorb all wavelengths of light equally, it is believed that either faulty experimental technique or human error may have influenced the results obtained. Introduction Photosynthetic pigments enable plants to absorb light, a process which is
Investigation to find out if Stinging Nettles in undisturbed areas have less stingers (trichomes) than nettles grown in grazed grassland.
Investigation to find out if Stinging Nettles in undisturbed areas have less stingers (trichomes) than nettles grown in grazed grassland. Aim: The aim of the investigation is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the number of trichomes on leaves of nettles (Urtica dioica) grown in grazed and ungrazed fields. Theory: This theory is being investigated because nettles in grazed grass areas would need to build up a high defence to protect themselves from being destroyed. Therefore they would adapt to produce a larger number of trichomes per leaf to help protect them from grazing animals. Nettles growing in grass land that is not grazed do not need to reproduce in this way, as they are rarely subjected to grazing. It is suggested that when a nettle has lost leaves from grazing, the new leaves that grow on the plant are produced with more stingers. In my investigation, these stingers will be counted from leaves of nettles in grazed and ungrazed fields. Nettles grow in large patches. The leaves are approximately 10 cm long and roughly heart shaped. The hollow hairs covering the leaves sit on a 'pore' which is filled with an acid. When a human brushes past the leaves, the hairs break off allowing the release of the acid onto the skin. This irritates the skin causing white itchy spots to appear. Common habitats for nettles are hedgerows, soil heaps,
describes the aims, objectives & Ownership of the Burnaston car Manufacturing plant, Toyota.
The following section describes the aims, objectives & Ownership of the Burnaston car Manufacturing plant, Toyota. It will also describe the contributing factors to the location of the plant. The Burnaston car plant manufactures the Corolla & the Avensis. History In 1918, Sakichi Toyoda revolutionised the Japanese weaving industry by creating the worlds 1st automatic loom. The sale of this business helped to finance the start up of Toyota Motor Company, which produced their first car in 1937. Ownership Toyota PLC is a multinational corporation based in Japan & the UK operation of Toyota is part of Toyota Europe. The Toyoda Family, the founders of Toyota, are still the largest shareholders today whilst Toyota's shares are traded on the stock exchanges of Tokyo, New York & London. Unique to Japan is the 'Keiretsu Model' whereby large companies can buy into each other's stock. Which means a proportion of Toyota's shares is owned by banks and the larger business corporation. The Burnaston Plant Is owned By Toyota PLC along with Toyota's Engine Manufacturing plant at Deeside. These plants are the only 2 Toyota sites that are based in the UK. Aims of Toyota PLC > The main aim of Toyota PLC is probably the same as any other non-charitable or non-government run business, that is to expand and Increase Profit Margin. > Toyota PLC's mission is to "ensure quality" & to
This essay provides a brief description of neem, while also focusing on the numerous benefits of it in regards to improving human and animal health. Neem (Azadirachta indica), a central Ayurvedic medicine and rising global panacea, is a fast-growing tree
Neem and Its Fundamental Uses December 3, 2008 PLSOILIN 297C This essay provides a brief description of neem, while also focusing on the numerous benefits of it in regards to improving human and animal health. Neem (Azadirachta indica), a central Ayurvedic medicine and rising global panacea, is a fast-growing tree that reaches an average height of 15-20 meters and can be found in at least 30 countries worldwide. These countries include Asia, where it is native to the Indian sub-continent, Africa, Central/South America and some successful plantations in the United States. The neem is well adapted to a wide range of climates since it thrives well in sub-arid to sub-humid conditions while also tolerable to cold weather at 00C up to altitudes of 1500 m. It is notably resistant to the adverse affects of extreme droughts and is able to grow in places where the average rainfall is well below 300 mm. As a result of its lax demands on soil fertility, the neem tree can grow in a wide variety of places. These can range from eroded hilltops with infertile lands to stony, flat lands and firm laterite. The best results can be yielded from black cotton soil with a pH lower than 8.5, with deep well-drained soil and good sub-soil water. Neem truly is a miracle plant and most every part of it contains powerful chemical properties being proved useful for humanity. The leaf is known to have
Determine the relationship between light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves.
Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between of light intensity and rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. Rate of photosynthesis was determined at pH 7, 0.2% NaHCO3, room temperature, and under white light using light intensities of 2200, 4250, 5300, 14400, 20600 lux. The amount of oxygen production was determined after five minutes at each light intensity. Spinach leaf segments were infiltrated with 0.2% NaHCO3 and made to sink in solutions of 0.2% NaHCO3 so that rate of oxygen , production could be estimated from the rate at which the leaf segments floated. The rate of oxygen production increased relatively rapidly at lower light intensities but leveled off at intensities greater than 5300 lux, suggesting that light intensity is a limiting factor of photosynthesis below 5300 lux. At light intensities greater then 5300, however, light intensity is no longer limiting. Instead other factors such as amount of water, NaHCO3, chlorophyll, and other reagents of photosynthesis become limiting. Introduction: Photosynthesis is a process that underlies all life on Earth. It is essential in creating the sugars that sustain life. By converting light energy into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates, it not only sustains the life of photosynthetic organisms themselves (called autotrophs), but also provides food for the heterotrophs