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Comparing and and contrasting the endocrine system with the nervous system in their control of homeostasis.

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________________ Homeostasis ________________ ________________ Comparing and and contrasting the endocrine system with the nervous system in their control of homeostasis. Introduction Homeostasis is a process of regulating and constant internal environment in respond to external factors and takes place through biological processes (Thibodeau & Patton 2008). These processes naturalize changes that affect metabolic equilibrium. For life system parameters to be regulated and monitored for its current status it is important for the body to have sensor mechanism (Thibodeau & Patton 2008). The status can be checked against the ?set ideal point? and response then would be initiated to restore to normal condition- balance (Thibodeau & Patton 2008). The most important properties, which are regulated, are: temperature, blood pressure, plasma osmolality, oxygen levels and metabolite levels (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Balanced internal environment allows cells to function appropriately. In a situation where plasma potassium level wouldn?t be controlled to set limits, this would affect membranes in excitable tissues which in result lead to hart failure or even death (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Homeostatic processes are based on a feedback loop, which allows to constantly monitoring level of substances or parameters (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Any change of the levels away from the set norms are rapidly detected and signals is sent to an effector mechanism that corrects the level back to the normal range (Bradley & Calvert 2011). The signaling system for both the feedback and the effector can be achieved via hormonal or neural mechanism (Bradley & Calvert 2011). ...read more.


Native Remedies (2012) [ONLINE]. Regulation of plasma glucose. Regulation of plasma glucose is also based on hormonal feedback. After meal consumption, glucose is absorbed from small intestine and this causes higher level of glucose in plasma (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Extended raised level of plasma glucose can damage the body in particular the blood vessels in the kidney and retina (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Therefore I is important to keep level of glucose in the normal range such as 4.5-5.6 mmol/l (Bradley & Calvert 2011). A glucose level is detected by beta cells located in pancreas glands (Bradley & Calvert 2011). The beta cells hold vesicles, which are responsible for storage of insulin (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Glucose penetrates the beta cells and secretes insulin into the bloodstream (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Secretion of insulin is aroused when plasma glucose level reach above 5 mmol/l (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Insulin would then be transported through bloodstream to its aim tissue such as liver or skeletal muscles. Insulin links to its receptor and corrects the amount of glucose in the cells of these tissues (Bradley & Calvert 2011). As soon as the level of glucose is brought back to the normal range the secretion of insulin is shut down (Bradley & Calvert 2011). The main disease which can be caused by this abnormality is diabetes ( hyperglycaemia) (Bradley & Calvert 2011). If the situation is the other way around, and glucose level is lower then normal range, then another type of cells called alpha will produce hormone called glucagon (Bradley & Calvert 2011). ...read more.


High temperature improves the action of immune system and minimizes the ability for microorganism to replicate (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Those microorganism release toxins, which stimulating production of protein IL-1 from the immune system?s cells (Bradley & Calvert 2011). IL-1 interacts with blood vessels in the hypothalamus and activates production of prostaglandinE2, which decreases the fairing of warm sensitive neurons (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Fig.2 Temperature Regulation (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Summary Both nervous and endocrine systems, endlessly monitor and control cells in our bodies, however there are slight differences and similarities in the way they both work (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Within the nervous system transmission of information is fast and can take as little as milliseconds (Bradley & Calvert 2011). This is due to sensory receptors, which immediately sends information from the nerves to the brain (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Within the endocrine system monitoring and controlling of our body is achieved by circulatory system so it reacts slower and can take up to hours, days or even weeks to obtain an effect (Bradley & Calvert 2011). The endocrine system can affect many organs and tissues (Bradley & Calvert 2011). In regards to similarities, several different types of chemicals used by both systems such as adrenaline Onteora (2012) [ONLINE]. Some effects of both systems can have impact on the same organs and tissues Onteora (2012) [Online]. Both systems have the ability to regulate each other Onteora (2012) [ONLINE]. Sometimes those two systems can be defined as neuroendocrine to emphasize the importance of their function in human body. (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Understanding of homeostasis is an important part to understand human physiology and maintain healthy well-being (Bradley & Calvert 2011). ...read more.

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