• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the major pathways and transformations involved in the atmospheric transport of Sulphur, produced as SO2 in combustion processes. Outline the major impacts of SO2 upon plants.

Extracts from this document...


Describe the major pathways and transformations involved in the atmospheric transport of Sulphur, produced as SO2 in combustion processes. Outline the major impacts of SO2 upon plants. Sulphur is an essential nutrient for normal plant growth and development. The primary source of Sulphur is from the soil in the form of sulphate (SO42-), which is taken up by the roots and translocated to the leaves where most of it is reduced and assimilated into organic sulphur compounds. An important primary source of sulphur can be found in the atmosphere. 15 molecular species of Sulphur are found in the atmosphere, according to Berresheim et al (1995). Plants unable to acquire all the sulphur they need from the soil are able to use SO2 from the atmosphere or other volatile compounds such as H2S.When more SO2 is taken up from the atmosphere by plants then is needed, plants are adversely effected. SO2 is considered the most important phytotoxic molecule. Originally most sulphur combustion was carried out in widely scattered domestic appliances, increasingly with introduction of Pollution Abatement Legislation, energy generation became localised in large centralised facilities, such as those designed to produce electricity. ...read more.


The dynamic model stimulates continuous fluxes and SO2 concentrations and related species for several days. A comparison between measured and modelled fluxes at Auchencarth Moss in the Scottish borders from Flechard et al (1999) shows good agreement in both the mean rates of exchange and its temporal variability. This recent work confirms data from previous studies, which suggested the role of NH3 in regulating SO2 deposition (Van Hove, 1989). The concentration ratio of NH3/SO2 exhibits large spatial variability as SO2 is from combustion processes and NH3 largely from livestock emissions. There are however, clear spatial patterns in the average deposition velocity for SO2 in vegetation as a consequence of different relative concentrations of NH3 and SO2 present. Tingely et al (1971) demonstrated using the tabacco plant that there is potential for interaction between SO2 and NO2. The effects of the separate gases are increased greatly when combined. %leaf injury NO2 SO2 0 5 5 0 5 25 26 10 10 60 20 10 0 25 5 68 25 25 100 25 50 Ambient SO2 has declined significantly over the past three decades. E.g., UK, Central England: 1950/1960 50ug m-3 SO2 Present 5ug m-3 SO2 According to Finlayson-pitts and Pitts (1986), typical peak ambient ...read more.


Leading to a decrease in sensitive species and an increase in resistant species. Resistance will evolve when a population contains individuals with heritable differences in characters that effect fitness, e.g. reproduction of offspring. Murdy (1979) showed that animal weed Peppergrass from a SO2 polluted copper basin in Tennessee, USA, showed significantly less flower sterility after exposure of inflorescence to 0.8ppm SO2 for 9hours, than populations outside the basin. The population did not differ in sterility in the absence of SO2. However, resistance has energy costs that may reduce yields, or alter the species niche, therefore it would be an error to assume that breeding or evolution of resistance will always compensate for stress from SO2 and other pollutants. There are a number of natural and anthropogenic sources that release SO2 into the atmosphere. Fuel combustion, metal smelting and oil and natural gas processing produce vast amounts of SO2. Of the 194 tonnes of SO2 emitted annually 83% is duel to fossil fuel combustion. The heat generated by the combustion process carries the SO2 convectively into the atmosphere. SO2 reacts with NO2 and OH in the atmosphere to produce acid rain. SO2 and acid rain have detrimental effects on vegetation such as chlorosis and reduction of photosynthesis. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Botany section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Botany essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Drought conditions, low and high temperatures, increased salt levels, pathogens and insects are common ...

    3 star(s)

    Finally there are euhalophytes, or true halophytes. These plants are able to tolerate high salt levels and are even stimulated to grow in environments which show a high salinity. In response to the effects of increased salinity, strategies include a fine regulation and rate of movement through the plant of NaCl , the adjustment of osmotic potentials via the compartmentalisation of ions in the cells.

  2. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis

    Light is needed for photosynthesis in plants. When chloroplasts in the leaf's cell are exposed to light they synthesise ATP from ADP. Oxygen is produced as a by-product of the photosynthesis reaction. Therefore increasing the concentration of light will increase the amount of ATP being synthesised from ADP and so more oxygen will be released as a by product.

  1. To investigate the effects of abiotic factors specifically pH on the abundance of marram ...

    As marram grass is not adapted to survive in acidic conditions, it prefers more neutral conditions. This can be seen from Table 3, at a pH of 4.0 there is no marram grass (A.arenaria) but as the pH increases to 6.0 we can see the percentage abundance of marram grass

  2. Free essay

    strategic development

    Further more, Tesco and Sainsburys offer their own high quality range food that was a traditional market of the M&S (Johnson and Scholes, 2002; anon, 2001) Threat of Substitutes The threat of substitutes is high. In the cloths retail sector after the mid 1990s there has been a great increase of retailers operating with foreign imports.

  1. Work shope on plant Cryopreservation

    4.9144 W2= 4.9237 W3= 4.9223 %Beads MC = =117.72% Number of seeds in the weighting bottle indicates 3, so... 39.24% One bead moisture content (% Bead MC) indicates 39.24% 3/0 (0%) 3/1 (33.33%) After two weeks of cultivation on Rib medium encapsulated shoot tips frozen in LN did not indicate any growth.

  2. Fostering Local Sustainable Agriculture

    long term.4 To essentially understand sustainability as it relates to the local agriculture, a systems perspective is important to utilize. Such a perspective was clearly outlined by the UC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. The system according to the University is seen in its broadest sense, from the individual

  1. Induced defence responses against herbivores. The aim of the project was to study ...

    When a different set of plants were treated with ethepton, a molecule close to ethylene, the grazing of the Egyptian cotton worm was reduced significantly as shown in Figure 3, however, that of the diamondback moth was unaffected. Figure 3.

  2. Mechanisms of insect resistance induced by treatment of Lycopersicon esculentum seeds by jasmonic ...

    through the action of allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase (AOS and AOC). In the cytoplasm, OPDA undergoes reduction, and then is subjected to 3 -oxidations in the peroxisome to produce the Jasmonic acid product. In addition to the synthesis of MeJA, Krumm et al., (1995)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work