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Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Feedback is the return of information which has been brought about by the result of a process or activity

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Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Feedback is the return of information which has been brought about by the result of a process or activity, the aim of it is to maintain or to control this process which in this context refers to a physical activity. In a physical activity, for a movement to progress the athlete needs to be aware of the effectiveness of their performance the athlete receive this information through the form of feedback. There are three loops to this feedback process:- Exteroceptive is feedback which comes from the performer's observation of their performance i.e. in a free kick the ball may not travel to where the performer had hoped, by gaining feedback the athlete is able to identify the problem and correct it. Alternatively the athlete can receive feedback in this way when watching a video of their performance, this allows the athlete to analyse their own performance i.e. to identify whether it is aesthetically pleasing, how the skill could be improved etc. This feedback can also come from other people, specifically coaches who can suggest methods to improve or maintain a skill from what they see. ...read more.


Positive feedback is essential in keeping athletes motivated and their arousal levels high. It is essential that athletes are informed when they perform a skill correctly so they are aware when future executions of the skill are performed correctly. Negative feedback is used to inform the athlete as to what was incorrect about the movement. When negative feedback is delivered the person supplying it must give constructive criticism by identifying the weaknesses about the performance but offering methods to how the performer could improve it. It is also useful to combine positive feedback with negative so the performer is aware that although there are areas to improve there are still strong points to the performance. Intrinsic feedback is supplied by inside the performer; the information comes as a direct result of a movement through the kinaesthetic senses; muscles, joints and balance. This feedback is usually supplied when the performer is fairly familiar with the skill as the body has adapted to how the skill should 'feel' when it is performed. Extrinsic feedback is provided by outside factors i.e. the outcome of a skill or from observation etc. ...read more.


The coach or teacher often provides a demonstration to make the learner aware of what they need to do and how it should look when performed correctly. Visual guidance is also beneficial to the learner by presenting visual aids to them in the form of posters or videos of role models. If a learner is introduced to the activity in this way they are aware of how to perform the skill correctly so some intrinsic feedback is received. Manual Guidance involves physical contact, so the teacher moves or supports the learner in the correct position. This guidance allows the learner to discover the timing and spatial aspects of the movement which helps with future intrinsic feedback. Verbal Guidance is primarily used in all forms of learning. The teacher should be able to instruct learners into what task they want them to perform, with advanced learners these instructions can be more technical and detailed but for a beginner they should be kept simple. This report has demonstrated how important feedback is to the learning of new skills. In conclusion feedback allows the performer to correct their mistakes, enables the performer to maintain a high standard performance, and most importantly allows the performer to progress. ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a thorough and organised report, which covers many of the key aspects of feedback and guidance.
it lacks some application advantages and disadvantages that might come from being a practitioner and USING them, but essentially illustrates much of the theoretical content well.

Marked by teacher Lindsay Taverner 08/02/2012

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