• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Evaluate the Developmental Theories of Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson

Extracts from this document...


Transfer-Encoding: chunked HH103 Social Science Perspectives Assignment 002: Essay evaluating two psychological approaches Introduction In this assignment we shall compare and contrast two psychological theories; Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson who helped to interpret the human behaviour. There will be a summary of the key features of each theory and the evaluation. There will be also the comparison between the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Moreover we shall use the evidence from literature, our own and other people`s experience to back up the statements. Sigmund Freud (1856-1938) was the one that founded the psychoanalysis and he is widely known for his work around the sexual themes (Sugarman, 1986). His theory is about the developmental process. To fulfil the basic necessities in life such as food, warmth and shelter; Freud developed a theory to meet these needs. The theory is divided into five psychosexual stages namely Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital. The first stage; Oral stage occurs from infancy and finish at approximately 1 year. This stage focuses on the mouth being the main source of pleasure such as sucking, biting, eating and tasting (Bee et al., 2010). ...read more.


The fifth stage? Identity versus Role confusion? from 12 to 18 years old adolescents start to find their identities and the important event happening is peer relationship ( Adams et al., 1994). Erikson believed that there are three different stages in adult. The intimacy versus isolation stage (19-40 years old) where love relationship occurs. The generativity versus stagnation stage (40 -65 years old) where adults develop the ability to care for another person, products or ideas (Newman, 2002). The final stage is the integrity versus despair (65 years to death), it is the reflection on and acceptance of one`s life. Erik Erikson Having looked at both key features we shall now compare and contrast each stage together with examples. Stage 1 In the first stage according to Freud`s theory by meeting the child`s needs, it leads to the development of independency and trust (Howe et al., 1999). Similarly, Erikson said that if a child develops trust, he or she will be safer in the environment. The weakness is if a child id afraid or feel insecure then developing trust will be difficult. Freud stated that a fixation can lead to the child becoming immature and having unrealistic optimism. ...read more.


Stage 5 http://www.polyvore.com/cgi/img-thing%3F.out%3Djpg%26size%3Dl%26tid%3D4106444 Freud stated that in this stage a large portion of life happens and one basic event is the detachment from parents. The libido towards genitals still existed but it redirected more towards adult sexuality. Another difference is while the satisfaction of the primary drive is linked in the phallic stage, the ego is well developed in the genital stage (Freud, 1923). The symbolic satisfaction occurs therefore love relationship starts happening and one starts thinking about career, families and responsibilities as going through the adulthood phase. Erikson`s greatest work was not on five stages but on eight stages. He believed that every individual undergo a series of stages in order to reach his or her full development. Conclusion Both theories have similarities and differences. It was clear that Erikson was influenced by Freud`s work which later pushed him to innovate his eight psychosocial stages. They both agreed that human development occurs through a slow and gradual pace (Thomson, 1997). Along the stages there are so many factors that affect the development process. While Freud emphasized the development on how well the conflicts are dealt with and whether the needs of reality change these decisions, Erikson focussed more on cultural influences leading to human development. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Piaget and Erikson

    He characterized young children's thinking by egocentrism. Such was seen by Piaget as guiding children to project their thoughts and wishes onto others. Piaget's views of cognitive development are within four stages: sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational and formal operational. Erikson believed that people undergo several stages along their lives, therefore

  2. Self-Report Measurement of Adult Attachment: An Integrative Overview.

    more in Bowlby's clinical constructs than in Ainsworth's observational studies of infants. Notice that West and Sheldon-Keller's scales, which are not much discussed in the literature on romantic relationships, appear highly redundant with scales designed to measure romantic attachment--at least when they are completed with romantic attachment figures in mind.

  1. Describe and evaluate one theoretical approach to understanding adult development

    for their own work and "perhaps the work of others, but also for the development of the current generation of young adults who will soon enter the dominant generation" (p. 6). The era of late adulthood begins at age sixty.

  2. Describe and evaluate two psychological perspectives.

    Classical and operant conditioning became the foundations of the psychological perspective of behaviorism. (1) Emma Grant Although not all psychologists agree with behaviorism, we cannot deny that some aspects of behavior can be explained using these learning theories. Before behaviorism psychology was closely linked with philosophy and for the first time psychology became scientific.

  1. Critically discuss Freud's theory of personality

    This theory does show common sense, in that the superego is likened to a conscience. The concept also fits in with perceived human experience giving it face validity; we are all aware of the conflicts that making choices creates and the anxiety this can cause.

  2. Is Bowlbys (1951) theory of attachment still relevant in understanding how to support and ...

    3.1 Attachment and Separation Field (1996) has identified five problems associated with attachment theory that are hereby enumerated as follows: (1) On the strange situation studies (Ainsworth, 1967), the model attachment is based on behaviours that occur during momentary yet stressful separations rather than during non-stressful situations when they can observe the mother and infant interact during natural situations.

  1. Within the field of Developmental Psychology, researchers continue to evaluate the significance of early ...

    taken, preferring to promote interdependence and discourage displays of emotion (Gelfand, et al., 2011: 163-172). Conclusion It is evident that both Bowlby and other theorists of attachment have made some major contributions to the understanding of child development and later psychopathology.

  2. Two and a half year old Alex learns to brush his teeth by imitation. ...

    Observation and cognitive ability, to retain the information and generate a new behavior, enable Alex to repeat the action of tooth brushing, the relationship between Alex who is the observer and his mum the model also bears relevance in the scenario.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work