• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Experiment in cognition.

Extracts from this document...


Running head: EXPERIMENT IN COGNITION Experiment in Cognition Eleasha M. Miller University of North Texas Abstract This experiment was conducted to further the previous research of Smith, Ward, and Schumacher (1993) and Marsh, Landau, and Hicks (1996) on the standard conformity effect. Participants in the experimental group were shown examples of three creatures that shared features converging on the single concept of hostility, while participants were not shown ay examples. Consistent with previous research, the experimental group participants' novel creations conformed to the examples they were shown even with specific instructions to not copy any aspect of the examples. Additionally, participants in the experimental group used more hostile features when creating novel creatures than the participants in the control group who were not shown examples. These results suggest that outside influences can unintentionally have profound effects on creativity and originality. Experiment in Cognition One facet of creativity research explores how memory contributes to the products of creativity (e.g. ...read more.


If the participants in Smith et al.'s experimental group "designed creatures that possessed a greater number of features than the critical ones as compared with controls, the examples could have arguably facilitated more elaborate designs and hence enhanced creativity" (Marsh et al., 1996). In order to test this, experiments were set up similar to Smith et al. but additionally; creativity was examined more closely using the proportion of copied features to novel features. The standard conformity effect was observed, however, evaluating the different metrics of creativity (total output, elaborateness and number of non critical features) yielded results that showed providing examples did not constrain creativity. Although the conformity effect has been replicated over many studies, it is not clear whether the effect is due to perceptual effects or whether the examples help generate a particular category representation. The goal of this experiment was to ascertain whether three shared features that converged on the single concept of hostility would cause concept-related features to be incorporated into participants; novel designs. ...read more.


F = 9.719, p = .003. The results should therefore be interpreted with caution. An independent samples t-test revealed that the experimental group which was shown creature examples (M = .1285, SD = .1443) used significantly more hostile features compared to the control group which was not shown creature examples (M = .0369, SD = .1043), t(39.984) = -2.592, p = .013. Discussion The results of the experiment supported the hypothesis that the standard conformity effect would be found and that participants would incorporate additional features that are consistent with the hostility concept, but that were not shown on the examples, into their designs. These results support Smith et al. and Marsh et al.'s claims that providing examples does indeed affect creative output. One explanation for the results is that the natural need for humans to learn and categorize inhibits creativity. Another explanation would be a more social need to conform. Future experiments could test not only creative ability but also correlate those results with conformity tests to determine whether the conformity effect might have more to do with personality than creativity. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Psychometrics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Psychometrics essays

  1. The Framing Effect

    Thus, they may be more able to calculate the utility. This could be adjusted, to make the experiment more valid by using participants with the same mathematical ability; hence, a matched pairs design. Another concern could have been influenced by social desirability, as a consequence of me knowing some of the participants.

  2. Verbal memory differences between the sexes

    Also, by using this number of participants will enable an average number of words to be calculated and any anomalous results will be highlighted and accounted for. As this is an experiment where an independent variable is being manipulated to see what effect it has on the dependant variable rather

  1. An experiment into the stroop effect

    carried out an auditory detection task, which also had the same results. Healey (1976) carried out research into how we automatically process frequently occurring words such as "of" in sentences and so find it harder to focus on component letters.

  2. The aim of this study is to establish a link between depression and a ...

    their 40's or 50's to use in the study, so for ease and again because of time constraints a group of students were chosen. Using two different sample types may have had an effect on the results; possible consequences of this will be looked at further in the discussion.

  1. Reflect the experiment Asch conducted in 1951.

    Aims My aim in this experiment is to find out if conformity increases when the number of confederates in a group increases. As well as this, I would like to see what happens to conformity as the group increases. Asch did this sort of experiment in 1951.

  2. Effects of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Styles experienced in childhoood on Levels of ...

    Many factors can influence the way that other people see an individual, Harter 1987 (cited in Daehler 1992: 473) states that physical appearance can reduce or increase an individual's self-esteem, this is mainly because of the bombardment of society with images in the media of a particular type of appearance denoted as beautiful.

  1. An Investigation into Perceptual Set.

    Hypotheses I have chosen to present my hypotheses as one-tailed because although there are two conditions, the dependant variable is singular, i.e. just how the word is perceived, so there will not be more results from one than the other and so I can not compare conditions in such a

  2. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the extent to which conformity occurs ...

    Therefore according to this, when faced with the dots my participants should conform with the other estimates for guidance, as they will not want their estimate to stand out amongst the others. Perrin and Spencer (1980) tried to repeat Asch's study in England in the late 1970s .

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work